A wound is a sharp injury that damages the skin layers, the dermis. It is a trauma where the skin is punctured or cut. Yhere are two types of wounds: open wounds and closed wounds. Open wounds run the risk of infections by bacteria and loss of blood. Throughout daily activities people meet accidents and get wounded especially when handling equipment. Nurses and other medical personnel have decided to cater for the wounded in their hospitals and clinics. Fundamentally this research is from secondary sources, which include journals and medical articles from reliable and known sources. There is the need to promote the practice of treatment of wounds to avert fatal outcomes like amputation or infections to the body. Open wounds are prone to serious infections that break down the body’s immune system (Wound management, 34). Ways on how to clean these wounds and take care of them are crucial in order to avert infections. Accelerated healing is imperative and only comes after proper catering of the wounds. Catering for these wounds vastly depends on nutrition and proper medication.
Classification and Identification of Wounds. The industry of wound care is large and it is worth billions of dollars as recorded by Advance for Nurses articles. The Advanced Medical Technology Association found out that treatment of critical wounds is a burden expenditure of healthcare. Also, it was found that twenty billion dollars and more were spent on managing wounds in the year 2003. Wounds are classified into five categories: surgical, diabetic, trauma, arterial ulcers and venous. When the causes of these wounds are established, the mode of treatment is easy to choose. Surgical wounds are easy to identify, it occurs such that primary wounds closure fails to reach completion (Wound management, 89). These wounds are known to be acute in nature; the primary objective is to sustain a moist condition allowing the formation of granulation tissues, which help in wound closure. When the skin is punctured or torn due to outside force then trauma wounds are developed. Mostly among the elderly, falls and skin tears cause trauma wounds. Treatment is usually done depending on the severity of the wound, but invasive treatments work. On the other hand, diabetic ulcers occur by neuropathy in a region that does not have sensation. Mild accidents may cause these wounds or they may occur spontaneously. Arterial ulcers are caused by ischemia mostly in extremities. These wounds occur in higher pressure areas like toes. Venous ulcers are brought about by poor venous functioning. This causes leaking of fluids into the other tissues.
According to Nursing Degrees Article, in determining if a wound is infected, assessments are done on the wound as well as on the area around it. Other factors are also looked at in the same consideration. Factors like delayed healing and the color of the wound play a prominent role in determining whether there is an infection. A wound is termed as infected if there are more than one hundred and five organisms in a gram of tissue (Wound management, 98). Bowler argues that this cannot be the only consideration; the interaction between the wound and the bacteria are also vital. Management of wounds can be eased by using antimicrobials, which cut down on the number of bacteria present in the wound.
Cleaning, Assessment and Infections of Wounds. According to Nursing Times Journal information, every newly obtained wound is prone to infection and cleaning is critical. In cleaning, depending on the nature of the wound, a clean liquid is used. This means that for superficial wounds rinsing using water is advised while deep burns are cleaned with saline solution that is sterile. Self-medication and treatment is not the best approach towards tackling health issues. Professional advice and care are the best for any health issue regardless of the cause (Swaim, 2006). Physician’s advice is key in determining which direction to take in managing wounds. Most importantly, for any wound that has just been acquired, one should stop the bleeding and sustain hygiene.
The author of this journal insists that during the process of healing, the wound may develop loose layers of skins around. In promoting healing, one is advised to remove this skin which is made of dead skin cells. Too much removal of the skin may widen the healing wound thus disrupting the process altogether. These wounds can also be covered to promote healing. Using sterile dressing or gauze prevents infections of the wound. A frequent change of wound dressing is advisable especially when the wound produces serum or becomes dirty. Although dressing is to prevent infections, it has its way of being carried out. Too tightly dressed wounds end up rotting or causing further bleeding. Wounds should be kept dry but not too dry as there is necessary moisture content to promote regeneration of cells and healing. In spite of this moisture content, there is a need for the wounds to be left uncovered. Infections can cause production of pus from the wound. It does not, therefore, mean that closed wounds are not deadly. Information about wound assessment was obtained from Wound International Journal of 2004. Wounds need to be thoroughly assessed (Swaim, 2006). The efficacy and value of prognostic wound measurement by computer systems, as shown by total healing outcome, proposes that measurement of wounds is a precursor of healing in clinics. Getting information about the length, depth, and width of wounds is called wound assessment.
Wound Treatment and Healing. Nursing Degree Articles give reliable data on treatment and healing of wounds. Antibiotics have proven obsolete, thus antimicrobials are able to kill the resistant strain. They are less toxic and more effective than antibiotics. In the treatment of wounds iodine is remarkably effective. It is found in many forms ranging from powder to spray as a non-alcoholic treatment. Since 1500BC to date honey is used as treatment for infected wounds and is considered highly effective. Antiseptics are becoming outdated because bacterial strains are resistant to this treatment of infections thus newer ways of approach.
Another solution is the use of maggots in the elimination of bacteria from wounds. They alter the pH of the wound thus providing an unsuitable environment for the bacteria, produce antimicrobial substances and eventually ingestion (Theoret, 2005). Wounds heal at their own time, but with recent body infections like HIV, there is a need for the wounds to be healed using drugs (Flanagan, 1997). Blue pus is caused by bacteria and is a common infection in many wounds. Healing relates to diagnosis form clinics, and a suitable therapy is prescribed thereafter. Healing can be natural or artificially induced through the use of drugs. These substances (called skin substitutes) are those which aid in wounds closure both, temporarily and permanently. Others tend to absorb and retain this artificial bioactive from the area around the wound. There are a number of uses of Ultrasound Technology in the process of wound care. For instance, MIST therapy for ultrasound has been used in healing of diabetic ulcers of the foot.
According to Wound International Journal of 2004, healing of the wound is affected by temperature. Tropical Radiant Heating has been studied, and its effects noted. The system of using novel bandages to heal wounds has produced admirable results. Nursing Times Journal records that an estimate of five million citizens in America has open wounds that become infected hence amputation. When the flow of blood is limited to the wound region, then the process of healing is slowed down. Medical practitioners complain that most victims seek their attention after a long struggle with the non-healing wound; most cases are usually too late.
Statistics form 1 October, 2004 show that one in ten of patients visiting health centers develop infection, nine per cent of these cases are usually wound related. NHS incurs an additional burden through the cost of treatment of the victims. This article focuses on current strategies of tackling wound infections and prevention of cross-infection. The senior lecturer participating in the field of Tissue Viability in the University of Central England contributes to the subject (Theoret, 2005). He says that attempts to cure are less cost-effective when compared with prevention of infections. Body infections in general are not inevitable, thus precautionary measures reduce on the incidence of these cases.
A multidisciplinary approach is the solution in solving, where emphasis is on preventing the transmission and suppress sources of infections. Aseptic technique (proposed by the Winning Ways document) is an infection-control method. This duty is bestowed upon managers in the wards and the related staff in charge. An infected wound is one that responds through a systemic way to an intruding pathogen which is multiplying (Flanagan, 2006). Wounds are unsterile, even with aseptic conditions it is not easy to ensure that the wound is sterile because of contamination by flora from the body’s skin. This is why wound cleansing is done in the theatres reducing on the natural skin flora to a minimal amount.
Fundamentally this research is done from secondary sources, which include journals and medical articles from reliable and known sources. It is vital for the information to be factual to avoid misguiding patients and students in the field. Every newly obtained wound is prone to infection and cleaning is necessary. In cleaning, depending on the wound condition, a clean liquid is used. This means that for superficial wounds rinsing using water is advised, while deep burns are cleaned with saline solution that is sterile. Self-medication and treatment is not the best approach towards tackling health issues no matter how small they may seem. Professional advice and care are the best for any sort of health issue regardless of the cause.