History says that since the period of independence, American women were deprived from voting right. Actually, the movement for woman suffrage was commenced in the early 19th century during the confrontation against slavery. Several women including as Lucretia Mott exposed an ardent interest in the antislavery movement and demonstrated to be estimable public speakers. She exposed the probability of women to partake in local, state and federal elections. In spite of the way of the Fifteenth Amendment (which proscribed state and federal governments from ignoring citizens the ballot on the grounds of race) Blacks along with other minorities moved to experience confrontation by state officials who were reluctant to employ the amendment.., President Johnson signed into law the Voting Rights Act, 1965, ” usually recognized the most triumphant part of civil rights legislation ever approved by the United States Congress” (U.S. Department of Justice). The Act regulates and realizes the Fifteenth Amendment’s permanent assurance that no person shall be ignored the right to vote owing to race or color.
The League of Women Voters
At the initial period of the twentieth century women’s suffrage achieved much popularity but surprisingly suffragists were compelled to arrests and many were imprisoned. After long desire, .The 19th Amendment was passed by the Congress and moved to the states for endorsement. Initially, ratification came from the Illinois state. The 19th Amendment is ratified after the choosing vote from Tennessee and NAWSA ultimately gains the objectives of woman’s suffrage. The NAWSA separates and identifies as the League of Women Voters. To end with, President Woodrow Wilson recommended Congress to overtake what became, when it was endorsed in 1920, the Nineteenth Amendment which constrained state and federal agencies from gender-based limitations on voting.
History provided evidence that American women were the pioneer who initially took initiative to gain women’s suffrage. A student at Radcliffe whose name was Maud Wood (later Park) established the Massachusetts College Equal Suffrage League in 1900. Getting assistance from NAWSA, Park tempted to manage identical league of same purposes leagues on other college premises and in 1908 the National College Equal Suffrage League was formed in 1908 to “prop up equivalent suffrage attitude among college women and men both before and after graduation” (Harper, 1969, pp. 661-2). Alice Paul in 1916 established The National Woman’s Party (NWP) l in 1916, it was basically named the Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage; The objectives of The National Woman’s Party (NWP) was to hold up the exertion of the Congressional Committee of the NAWSA. “Modeled after tactics utilized by British suffragists, the NWP was attempted to triumph national suffrage by assertively lobbying Congress through ‘an forceful, unashamedly uncensored, confrontational approach'” (Bjornlund, 2003, p. 56). It is said that the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) was the oldest blending non-sectarian women’s association in the world; it was formed in 1874 by a cluster of women fretful about the crisis of alcohol violence in the United States. Owing to the general objectives between the restraint and the woman’s rights activities, “the budge from restraint exertion to suffrage work was a usual progression for tens of thousands” (Weatherford, 1998, p. 128).
Hopefully, numerous afford were made in this regard after the historic American Civil War (1861-65) to gain the long desired suffrage right, despite some pragmatic initiative the Territory of Wyoming allowed women the right to vote in all elections in 1869, after this event it soon became evident that an amendment of the federal Constitution would be a marvelous scheme. Pursuant to the American Revolution, women of New Jersey were allowed to vote in New Jersey. The condition or right to vote was not the same for another state from 1790 until 1807. Women were again prohibited or barred from voting in the state in 1807. During the last period of the nineteenth century, different countries, colonies and states allowed restricted women’s suffrage commencing with South Australia in 1861. The Civil War halted suffrage initiative as women distract their energies to “war work.” Actually, The War seduced the women to get the taste of significant organizational experience that they will employ after the momentous strife. Different women in the history played important role to get voting right among them.
In the largest contexts, the suffrage movement personifies the struggle by all individuals to get hold of voting rights, the expression is deemed to be identical with the woman’s suffrage movement that stalked from the fight for women’s rights (Weatherford 1998). This is possibly owing to the reality that the woman’s suffrage movement was a battle and that was pervaded through seventy-two-year-long. Actually, this long struggle was titivated by the different historic events such as it was ingrained in the extinguishment of slavery and, as a minimum for some pioneers, attached to enjoying the right to vote for women beyond the consideration of caste creed and color. Even in order to establish right aptly a women foundation that was designated as General Federation of Women’s Clubs (GFWC) was established in 1890, the This Clubs is considered as one of the world’s greatest and oldest women’s volunteer service organizations. Basically, GFWC was founded to work for promoting self-education and individual and career development for the sake of women. It acted effectively to ensure the influential participation of women in the political field before the period of the Nineteenth Amendment allowing women the right to vote. Thus, the federation had become an emblem of establishing women right and started to influence the governmental activity on different issues of historical significance. No doubt to postulate that, owing to make the several pragmatic steps in different field for both equal rights and responsibilities for women were established in the society to a great extent.
In 1892 Reverend Olympia formed The Federal Suffrage Association which was briefly known as (FSA) with the object of crafting coalitions with associations propounded on subject other than suffrage (Weatherford, 1998). This association was traced as the Woman’s Federal Equality Association in 1902 in an effort to deal with women’s distress (Harper, 1969).
Eliminating the Legal Unfairness Against Women
At the NAWSA national convention the League of Women Voters was structured in 1919 to substitute the National Association subsequent the approval of the Nineteenth Amendment. It was beset with different objectives and among its initial purposes, the League of Women Voters was founded to eliminate the lingering legal unfairness against women in state codes and constitutions, to employ its impact to attain complete enfranchisement for women and to support millions of women to perform their new-fangled errands as voters. Today, the League continues to influence public policy (Harper 1969; LWV). In 1916, AWSA discloses a “winning plan” for triumph, as a Presidential candidate Woodrow Wilson swore that the Democratic Party Platform will support and sanction suffrage. World War I made sluggish the suffrage expedition in 1920 but NAWSA tactically aligns itself with the war sweat to expand more support.
The position of The National Association was against the Woman Suffrage which is headed by Mrs. Arthur M. Dodge. It was established in 1911 in New York. This organization made its attempt to “boost public interest in the contra Tory to global right to vote for women and to train the people in the belief those women can be more functional to the society without the ballot than if associated with and predisposed by biased politics” (Harper, 1969, 679). Since propounded by Weatherford, the Association was the conservatives’ banner-carrier until they lastly misplaced in 1920.
Beyond simply serving women the legal facility to vote, the suffrage movement titivated civic function among recently enfranchised women by the associations as the League of Women Voters, the new-fangled arm of the now obsolete National American Woman Suffrage Association. Suffrage of women is important for different reasons. It provided women a vocal and better protection with which to create a disparity on regional and federal levels (Kraditor, 1965). Through involving in social works including as the institution of community development organizations (the primary vehicle for development in low-income neighborhoods), women have been competent to create assistance of permanent significance to their periphery and to the larger society (Gittell, Ortega-Bustamante, and Steffy, 2000). It is doleful that, the right to vote might not be as completely recognized today, women move to contract their communities optimistically and control federal and state polity of governmental affairs though in these sectors they have a few number of elected and appointed officials (Boyte and Skelton 1997).
According to the statement of Robb (1996) “one of the most significant chapters of the woman suffrage movement may be the relative triviality of suffrage all by itself” (p. 40). The former suffragists did not notice voting rights as their most important objective; rather they noticed suffrage as a scope to contribute more entirely in the community affairs of society by dint of the political appointment and civic steps (Kraditor, 1965). Gerrit Smith made woman suffrage a lath in June 1848 in the Liberty Party platform. The next month was really significant as at the Seneca Falls Convention which was happened in Upstate New York, futuristic together with Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott put an afford to make a seventy-year long struggle by women to safe and sound the right to vote. Lucy Stone showed an effective afford to organize a larger assembly which achieved much public concentration in 1850.Basically, this greetings made women more cautious about their right and as a consequence the National Women’s Rights Convention was held in Worcester, Massachusetts in order to aware the administrative body of the world that women can do any thing if they would desire. A native of Rochester whose name was Susan B. Anthony in New York, participated the grounds in 1852 after perceiving Stone’s 1850 speech. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony were the harbinger of the American Equal Rights Association. This association launched their activities for establishing the right of both white and black women and men and generally, it was devoted to the objective of universal suffrage.
Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is the outcome of the woman’s suffrage movement which lastly granted women the right to vote. Enfranchisement was just one thing among the Stanton proposed twelve resolutions. Many women thought that the right to vote was a reverie. But it was very delectable that, Stanton and Anthony instantly perceive that only women suffrage can motivate the all rights of women and by dint of suffrage they would ensure the desired political and social right. All obstacles can be removed by this right (Carter 1996).
Though the Nineteenth Amendment is the outcome of long struggle .After the period of its amendment few challenges were confronted by it. Different disputes were spread on the basis of this amendment. The greatest challenge was introduced by the state. State itself wanted to ignore the amendment——But a historic decision made by the Supreme Court in the 1922 case of Leser v. Garnett, snatches away all these problems. It robustly and clearly articulated that the amendment is mandatory for the every state as an inevitable part of the constitution.