The given essay will consider the terroristic attack, happened on September 11, 2001, in the USA, from the point of view of the Realist, Liberal, Identity, and Criticial theories. The essay is based on the article titled “Thousands Feared Dead as World Trade Center is Toppled”, and is taken from the official website of the New York Times.
The study of the international relations should explain the events that occur in the world. It seems impossible because even the best theories are insufficient. However, they help us to shatter illusions of liberal hawks, which dominate in foreign political debates.
The investigation of the terroristic attacks of September 11, 2001 may contribute greatly to discussions about the political realism.
The realistic theory is usually considered to be the most consecutive interpretation of essence and the reasons of the political events – terroristic acts, armed conflicts, military alliances, diplomatic negotiations and the interstate relations. Realists managed to create the elegant theory of the international relations, having specified that the conflict of interests between various political communities is internally inherent in the international system.They have shown that the unique of the international relations is caused by the nature of the political communities which represent the opposite parties in these relations.
From the point of view of the abovementioned theories there are different forms of liberal realism, based on the joining idea: the characters, called states, act on the stage of the international relations. This idea generates the whole complex of the anthropocentric ideas of the state and its activity on the international scene. Traditional realists describe the interactions between the states as “hostility” and “friendliness”; liberalists – as “sensitivity” and “vulnerability”.
The day of the 11th of September, 2001 became the day of the failure both in the intelligence service and in politics. The well-known politologist Steven Walt considers the event, happened on the 11th of September, 2001 from the point of view of realism and liberalism. Realism is focused on the changes in the power distribution between states, while liberalism emphasizes the crucial role in the increase of the number of democratic states and a turbulent character of the transfer to the democracy.
Suggesting the ways for the solution of the problem of terrorism, the world politologists refer to the definite elements of these theories. The President George Bush promised to struggle against terrorism by means of the liberal democracy in the Middle East. Moreover, he stressed that the skeptics, calling themselves realists, lost contact with reality and that the safety of America was grossly exaggerated.
The president campaign of John Kerry had similar ideas, namely he stated that the foreign policy of the USA achieved its greatness only with the help of the combination of realism and liberalism. Thus, the theory of the international affairs was formed for informing of the public intellectuals and spreading of the academic ideas.
Realism estimates its role in the study of the events on the 11th of September, 2001 from the point of view of the pragmatic power. Liberalism focuses on the joint potential of the mature democracy; however, it pays attention to the vulnerability to the new democracies, which got stuck in the ethnical conflicts.
“Realists liberals believe that state preferences cannot be reduced to some simple metric or preference ordering, such as seeking “security” or “wealth”. Most modern states are not Spartan: They compromise security or sovereignty in order to achieve other ends, or, indeed, just to save money. Nor do modern states uniformly seek “wealth.” Instead, they strike rather strike complex and varied trade-offs among economic, social and political goals. Nor, finally do they seek “power” in the sense of “domination”: The USA would clearly rather spend money on “butter” rather than “guns”.
Even in the modern epoch of the global economic interdependency realists are not surprised that the military force remains central, but their conflicts do not. The most obvious argument in favor of the success of the Realist, Liberal, Identity, and Criticial theories is that they can explain that it was a powerful military answer on the terroristic attacks on the 11th of September, 2001.
When the country becomes stronger than any other enemy, the realists expect that it will use its advantages in order to spread its domination sphere in own security, property status and other motives.
Realists state that the main battles in the war against terrorism were made regarding states (Afganistan and Iraq) themselves not the United Nations Organization.
The Realist, Liberal, Identity, and Criticial theories suggest the filter, through which it is difficult to study the complicated picture of the terroristic acts in the USA. However, these theories helped to explain the rhetoric of the foreign policy. The most important fact is that it is a very strong constraint.