Analysis refers to an evaluation of the company’s viability, stability and its future consequences. Financial analysis is the best tool to predict the future. Usually companies hire experts to predict the future of the entity. Mainly the experts emphasize on the past trends, ratio analysis and future consequences. To earn profits and facilitate the shareholders of the organization is one of the main prospective of the firms. From a shareholders’ point of view predicting the future of the organization which directly relates with their dividends, is what financial analysis is all about, but there are lot more benefits for the financial analysis like investors use financial analysis for anticipations regarding the financial health and stability of the company. By contrast the management of the organization needs financial analysis for future decisions which are so essential to sustain in a competitive market.
The purpose of the financial analysis differs between ‘insiders’, or managers, and outsiders or investors and creditors. Investors and creditors will be interested in attempting to predict future earnings and dividends and in assessing a company’s ability to repay its financial obligations. There are a number of ratios which are to be categorized for a definite area just like management ratios and inventory ratios are just for management usage while the ratios like profitability, dividends are equally beneficial for both the management and for the shareholders of the company. Generally the management or the financial analyst performs two type of analysis.
The main prospective of this study is quite straightforward, as we want to analyze the performance of an organization to make effective economic decisions relates to that analysis. We will discuss some escalating points regarding the company and then shift the gears towards the ration analysis of the company, which gives insight knowledge to us regarding the company.
In this section, we have to describe the two main elements contained in the annual reporting and their significance. The financial statements have four dominant things in it which are Income Statement, Balance Sheet, Cash Flow Statement and Changes in Equity. Every element has its own significance as an analyst can calculate a number of rations from all these elements. In this case we have been given the Income Statement and Balance Sheet which is enough to bring us on a decision of investment.
In the financial statement which has been given to us, a number of financial accounting principles have been used including direct cost and direct labor, which can become a part of the analysis, when applied comprehensively.
Ratio Analysis of the Company
Gross Profit Margin (GPM)
Gross margin, Gross profit margin or Gross Profit Rate is the difference between the sales and the production outlay without overhead, payroll, taxation, and relevance payments. Gross margin can be defined as the quantity of contribution to the trade enterprise, after paying for command-flat and command-patchy group overheads, essential to jacket overheads (preset commitments) and impart a barrier for nameless substance. It expresses the relationship between arrant profit and sales revenue. It is an appraise of how well each money of a circle’s revenue is used to embrace the overheads of freight sold. We have calculated the GPM of the company which is mentioned in the table below.
From the above table it can be easily judge that the performance of the company is deteriorating year on year (YOY) because of the escalating cost. The sale of the company is increasing YOY but the GPM ration is continuously manifesting declining figures. The direct material and the direct labor cost are the one which has been found as big culprit of this declining figure.
Net Profit Percentage of Sales (NPPS):
The net profit percentage of sales ratio shows the comparison of sales with the net income, it can be computed by dividing the Net Income by number of sales (Bossaerts, 2006).
NPPS = Net Profit/ Sales
From the above table it can also be recognized that the NPSS of the organization is also decreasing. This particular shows the relationship of profit after tax with the sales. NPSS decreased YOY by 0.35%, 0.38%, and 1.3% and by 6.87% in the years 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009 respectively. It is certainly a negative sign for any public traded company to report negative NPSS ration in their financial statements. Now, we will analyze the balance sheet ratios.
RETURN ON ASSETS (ROA):
Return on Asset (ROA) measures how effectively the firm’s assets are used to generate profits net of expenses. This is an extremely useful measure of comparison among firm’s competitive performance, for it is the job of managers to utilize the assets of the firm to produce profits. If ROA decreases from previous year to the current year then it shows, that there might be some investment activity has been taken place with in the premises of the organization. ROA is computed by dividing the net income with the total assets. Award one point if the figure comes in positive of the most recent year.
Fluctuations and volatility has been observed in the ROA graph of the Company. Likewise the net income, the ROA graph of the company also envisaged a declining trend with the passage of time, as it was almost 10% in the year 2005 and deteriorated by 2% FY 2006 and 2007, but a sharp decline has been envisage in the figure of the year 2008 due to the severe financial crisis and culminated oil prices.
RETURN ON EQUITY:
In real sense, ordinary shareholders are the real owners of the company. They assume the highest risk in the company. The rate of dividend varies with the availability of profits in case of ordinary shares only. Therefore ordinary share holders are more interested in the profitability of a company and the performance, which should be judged on the basis of return on equity capital of the company.
If the net income of a company manifest a positive figure than it means that the company has enough surpluses in their statutory reserves to facilitate their shareholders in a proficient manner. The ROE of the Company was stagnate in three consecutive years of 2004, 2005 and 2006 where the company has the ROE growth of above 20% which really is a big ask. In the year 2006, the company’s ROE ratio was declined little bit by 7% due to the decrement in the net income. In the year 2008 the company’s ROE came in the single figure due to the high oil prices and financial crisis, but it is really appreciable that the company still managed to keep their ROE level in the positive node.
Current ratio shows a company’s ability to meet short term obligations or short term financial promises. The higher the ratio than it means the company has a higher liquidity. Now let’s have glance over the current ratios of all the three banks. Award one point if the CR’s figure manifests a positive result.
As per the prudential regulations, the company is in impeccable position, whose CR is 1:1. From the table, we can see that not a single year meet with the prudential regulations. The logic behind these financial numbers is not an illusive one, like in the year 2004 the CR was 1.5, which means that company have only one asset on their name and rest of the 5 assets were being bought by creating a liability. It is said for the current ratio that if it is low, than it would be good for the organization. The least CR of the company was the lowest in the year 2008, which showed that the company has one asset from their income and 2 on the liability, which mean that the entity is in less distress of liability. From the investor analysis it is good that the company is not under the dismay of liability, which directly related with their dividend.
Recommendations for the Investor
To invest in a company, a company must have some sort of positive signs but in this analysis, we have not found any positive or increasing signs either in the analysis of the income statement or balance sheet as both the statements show negative trends. So according to my analysis, I will not recommend my customer to buy the stocks of the company or to invest in the company. The investors have to wait for the right time to come and then invest in the company.