Hash algorithms are functions that convert strings into number or numeric codes. They are often used in changing error codes and cryptography. Hash algorithms are designed in such a manner that each algorithm has a definitive hash value .In their use in cryptography, password hashes may be send to a server and weighed against the saved hash values in the database. This prevents the password from being revealed in plain text. These algorithms are used to ensure data as well as message integrity and to create unique file identifiers. They can also be used to search for files with similar material content and to change data into unreadable state.
Held, G. (1999). The hash function can also be used in order to access data quickly and in easy recovery of lost data, it is used to validate message recipients and senders. That is for encryption and decryption of signatures. In decryption of signatures, the hash function changes the digital signature then to a message-digest. The signature and the message digest are sent in separate transmissions to the receiver. Using the same hash function as the sender, the recipient derives a message-digest from the signature then weighs it against the hash value send. The hash function should be the same.
The hash function is normally employed to guide the original value and is used every time the data is being recovered that is hashing is one way. These hash functions are commonly used in security software. Each and every harsh is distinctive but always replicable .The most commonly used algorithms are Secure Hash Algorithm -1 .Secure Hash Algorithm -256, Message Digest Algorithm-5. Others include additive hash, Rotating hash and Bernstein hash (Held, 1993).
In comparing of algorithms, the most common factor considered is the efficiency of the algorithms, it also involves taking into account which algorithm takes the least time and does the best work. In order to compare the work done by competing algorithms, there must be a set of well-defined goals that can be applied to each algorithm. For programmers to measure the performance of two algorithms, they first code the algorithms and then compare the time used in execution of the two programs .The one that takes a shorter execution time is usually the best algorithm, however execution time is specific to every computer.
Encryption techniques are procedures or systems that are used to change plain text into cipher text. Encryption uses a systematic method known as algorithm to convert data from an original message into encrypted form. Cryptographic algorithms use a combination of characters known as a key to encrypt data. The encryption process can only be carried out by those who posses the key and the algorithm. Without the key and the algorithm, it is impossible to change plain text into cipher text. William, S. (2010). Current cryptography methods are unbreakable even with the strongest computers. This has led to the increase in competition among many cryptographers. To create stronger techniques the techniques produce cipher text that contains random characters. These techniques also defy most of the existing systems for decoding into plaintext and they use complex mathematical codes, which are hard to break even when the method used in creating them is known. The most prevalent ones are: binary, the hexadecimal and the message digest algorithm. Message-Digest algorithm 5 techniques are commonly used by sites to secure passwords, as it is a one-way process. The encrypted text cannot be reversed to plain text. Most of them have hashes that range use 32-128bit of characters (William, 2010).
The binary is the simplest encryption technique, since it uses 8 bits made up of zeros and ones. The value of the binary is calculated from right to left. It is also the lowest language used by computers.
Another technique commonly used is the hexadecimal, although it is not really an inscription technique, it can be used as one since it does not show plain text. It usually uses number 0-9 and characters A-F; it is easily decoded by hand. It can be decrypted by typing java script into the URL. However, this has led many Cryptographers to shy from using it (Held, 1993).