Validity

In research methods, validity refers to the ability of findings of a research study to truly represent the phenomenon that a researcher is measuring. Kirk and Miller (2009) define validity as the extent to which a research study measures the subject that it is supposed to measure. Validity is an important element of a research because it helps in ensuring accurate application and interpretation of results of the study. Research validity can be either internal or external. Internal validity refers to the ability of independent variables in a test to produce accurate results as stated in the ...

The Foundation of the Canon

Globally, Christians refer to the canon of the New Testament as a set of books that constitute the New Testament of the Holy Christian Bible. Christians believe that the authors of these books of the Holy Bible were divinely inspired. The set of books of the canon of the New Testament are believed to have been written in the first century. It is agreed among Christians that the list of these books sum up to twenty seven books which constitute of the canonical gospels, Acts, letters of the Apostles, and revelation. Basically, the identification of these books as authoritative was solemnized in ...

The Collapse of Civilizations

As the humankind evolves and studies its past, it becomes increasingly clear that formerly grand civilizations must have faced serious issues resulting in their collapse. Many scientists argue about the nature of these problems that caused such terrible consequences. Nevertheless, it did happen in the past and, unfortunately, can happen again if the human beings will not learn the lesson from history. While there are different points of view on the reasons of collapse, the pivotal part remains the same: it is the inability of civilizations to adapt to new changes. Most common causes for des ...

Terrorism and Effective Methods to Combat It

Terrorism is a subject of endless debates and one which evokes strong emotions and polarized opinions. This issue is often discussed and not very well understood in international relations. The definition of ‘terrorism’ is still lacking. One can find different definitions in various sources. The wide range of existing terrorism definitions highlights various motivations of the terrorist acts. Terrorism is threatening people with violent acts and damage. In the twenty-first century, it seems that terrorism is everywhere. Terrorism is often stated as one of the reasons for foreign laws and milit ...

The Biology of the Common Raven

Life on the planet depends primarily of the co-dependent relationship between all living creatures. There is no living organism in the universe that can exist in complete exile from other species without somehow interacting with them, would it be on the surface, in the water, or in the air. In addition, the social interactions are also vital for each representative of particular species. This paper aims at gathering information about the interactions of the Common Raven with other bird species. Based on the results of four different studies from scholarly periodicals presented in this work, th ...

Stress and Health

Stress has different meaning to different people. To some, it may be great breakdown in their lives, while to others; it may be used as a stepping stone to new opportunities in life. Therefore, stress is the intense feeling a person undergoes when faced with threatening situation or when in difficulties. A person under stress feels out of control ,he /she is tense ,he is not in any position to figure out where to direct his energy ,lacks proper concentration at work ,or in studies ,and pressure overweighs him so much. Stress represents the psychological and the physiological reaction to a diff ...

The Memory System

Memory is the process by which information is encoded, stored and retrieved from the brain. This information can be stored in the short term or long term memory. Tracing the memory system from stimuli into the long- term memory involves various steps. They occur chronologically and involves, stimuli-sensory memory-selective attention-short term memory-encoding and finally into the long term memory. These processes can be broken down into three processes that are involved in memory. The first is called encoding. This is where information is transformed to be kept or stored by way of converting ...

The Learning Perspective

The phenomenological and cognitive perspectives emphasize the importance of peoples inner experience and thinking. A person’s character is governed by his or her own way of thinking. People tend to act the way they do as a way of externalizing the information in the inner self. The way people react to various situations is mainly governed by the stimulus they are exposed. Simply put, our thinking is affected by the environment we live in, feelings and past experience and to some extent those around us. The phenomenological perspectives and the cognitive perspectives theories are based on va ...

Health Care Setting

Over the history of the healthcare industry, there has been a great deal of evolution in the manner in which information regarding the operations is handled. Initially manual ways of handling the data that was collected were employed. The data of individual patients or populations was collected in the most basic ways and processed in the simplest form and the retrieval was also basic. Concepts have been coming up that seek to enable a more effective and efficient manner of data handling and processing of the data that is collected. Such concepts include electronic healthcare systems (E H S) ...

Social Labels

Labeling and the theory of labeling is the process of assigning certain categories of people in positions of generalized negative characteristics, leading to the evocation or reinforcement of these behavioral characteristics. Labeling is a subject of such influential groups as the police, law enforcement officials, journalists, and social workers. As a result, people tend to justify negative labels such as "addicts" or "mentally ill", reinforcing appropriate behavior. In such cases, it is difficult to prevent the consequences of labeling. Individuals or groups of people with labels can have a ...