Question #1. There were various crucial civil rights legislation in the 1960s, which had tremendous impact on the well-being of the minorities in the United States. First, the 1964 Civil Rights Act, which addressed the issue of racial discrimination. This act bestowed the power of the judiciary department to address and resolve racial discrimination problems. The legislation benefited the minorities by protecting them against discrimination of any kind. For instance, there was an increase in voter number of the black population. This was no doubt a benefit to the minority since it gave them a chance to participate in the electoral process and exercise their right to vote. Secondly, the 1960 Civil Rights Act that introduced fines to be imposed on anyone who attempted to hinder a citizen from exercising the right to vote. This was a crucial legislation that protected the interest of the black-Americans from being barred to vote. This was quite vital to enhance equal rights for the black-Americans since humankind includes all skin colors.
Thirdly, the Voting rights Act (1965) which was a fulfillment of the promised legislation in the 15th amendment. This legislation eliminated the literacy requirement for one to participate in the electoral process. It gave the attorney general the right to arbitrate on behalf of the persons whose voting rights were infringed. Personally, I appreciate the legislation since it enhanced transparency in the electoral process, and put in the mechanism to intervene for victims who got discriminated.
Fourthly, the Heart of Atlanta v. United States (1964), which required that all businesses which took part in interstate trade to abide by the federal rules on civil rights legislation. This legislation benefited the minorities since it banned segregation. I think it was a landmark legislation since it protected the minority from discrimination in the labor market.
Lastly, the Twenty-Fourth Amendment (1964) that outlawed poll taxes. This legislation protected the minority since those in power could not use their position to implement taxes to bar them from voting. I think this legislation was quite appropriate to ensure elimination of all possible gaps, which could be used to implement discrimination.
Question #2. “Separate but equal” was considered unconstitutional by the supreme court because the case Brown v. Board of Education (1954) ruled out segregation and embraced desegregation. This case was important to the Supreme court decision since it was used as reference of the desegregation of schools.
Question #3. The approach to measure public opinion in the United States considers the correlation between state policy and party control. In other words, state parties are entirely influenced by state opinion. In essence, parties borrow their ideologies from state opinion. Therefore, parties’ reaction towards state opinion influences the electoral process. Consequently, public opinion is mainly measured on the basis of the correlation between state policy and party opinion.
Question #4. The political values formed in the United States are formed on the basis of separating power and avoid concentration of power on one authority or person. In fact, the power is equally distributed among the various arms of government that act independently. The political values are formed on federalism perspective that involves the allotment of power between the state and federal governments. This concept ensures power is distributed and checked by all means. In essence, the president shares power with the judiciary and congress in the context of a national government whereas the federal government is bestowed the sovereignty enjoyed by the state governments.
Question #5. There are various influential voting groups in the United States. The American Jews group is one of the influential groups. The jews are influential in the electoral process mainly because they are concentrated in major states and often have a tendency to act as a swing hence exceptionally unique from the rest of the American population. Secondly, the interest group is also an influential voting group in the United States due to its increased representation in Congress. Thirdly, the Latino is equally an influential voting group in the United States due to the demographic transformation that has made them the second most populated minority groups in the United States. Fourthly, The American-Israel Public Affairs committee is a listed lobby that puts efforts in encouraging their members to participate in the electoral process hence create awareness necessary to impact the electoral process. Lastly the business class is a also an influential voting group because they team up with politicians and supply funds to carry out their campaigns hence impact the electoral process.