Task 1

Deming considered that quality refers to customers’ needs and expectation meeting and exceeding, with continuous process of improvement; however Crosby defined quality as the managerial work to set the objectives and communicate with employees. Similarities: high quality saves money, its improvement is endless, needs upper management commitment. Differences: implementation: Deming’s methods have no sequential steps, Crosby prescripts starting points; personnel: Deming – workers’ abilities unaffected, Crosby – motivation for quality improvement.

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The best system for all organisations doesn’t exist. Deming is better to use in manufacturing companies, and Crosby – service, innovative companies. For every organisation it is better to combine these systems.

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For Deming’s system the best organisational culture is the one, where leader is a coach that helps people and machines to do their work in the best way; for Crosby’s system – the team work, where everyone understands his/her role in quality improvement process.

Task 2

Term “culture” refers to the content of social life and people’s activity. It describes human activity that is associated with self-expression and self-knowledge process, with the accumulation of human skills and abilities (religion, phobias, ideas, imitation), with the manifestation of his/her subjectivity and objectivity (character, competence, skills and knowledge). This term includes organized collection of material objects, ideas and images, production technology and its management, sustainable relationship between people and its regulation, evaluation criteria, that exists in society. Culture is man-made environment for people’s self-realization, and is the source of regulation of social interaction and behavior. For example, people live in the same area for 300 years, they develop their own social and moral standards, create laws to regulate people’s behavior, they unite and become nation. They have their own culture. In this nation exists groups of people, who differ among others by appearance, tastes, religion, traditions. This concept also refers to the term “culture”. Therefore, culture is the product of civilization. Organizational culture is a system of commonly used approaches which are related to the work organization, goal achievement and formation of the relations that distinguish this organization from others. Organizational culture is a set of traditions, values, symbols, common approaches, members’ worldviews. It is the expression of company’s individuality. For example, if you visit any of the 10,000 “McDonald’s” restaurants, no matter in which country of the world it is in, you’ll see a familiar environment, identical menu, high quality of the products, efficient service and cleanliness. These factors are the part of the image of one of the most successful organizations in the world.

Task 3

One of the most difficult goals of a manger is to create the most efficient organisational culture that would lead to the effective and efficient performance of the enterprise. Organisational culture can be divided into 3 levels that are based on the visibility. The first level is Artefacts and Behaviour. This level describes the employees’ behaviour and workplace. In the traditional organisational culture the main concern is to meet planed objectives, so the workplace characterized by simple division of labour and employees have strict rules how they need to behave. Otherwise, modern organisational culture is oriented to the continuous growth of the company and the main goal is to obtain high profit. The second level is Values. Values influence the employees’ behaviour. In the traditional culture it is valuable to work for a company for a long time that makes you professional. In the modern organisational culture it is necessary to have a lot of experience, but at the same time be creative. The third level is Assumptions and Beliefs. This level characterize how much employees involved in the life of the company, how they cooperate to receive high results. Therefore, traditional organisational culture refers to the one, where high level of leadership is practiced and company has hierarchy structure with the low level of cooperation, culture is highly formalized. Modern organisational culture refers to the company that highly innovative with high level of employees cooperation and participation in the life of organisation. The organizational culture is the outcome of the management’s initial beliefs and employees’ adoption to those beliefs.

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