Organizational management involves controlling and leading the organization members’ efforts, as well as planning and organizing their resources in the prospect of attaining the organizational goals. For effective organization, the managers have a role to play in the organization’s decision making process that will be beneficial to the organization and be able to solve its problems. Time management, organization or file structure and avoiding distractions are important topics of this study.
1. Time Management
This is an act of planning and exercising conscious control of the time spent on the activities. This process is more salient when one’s goal is to achieve productivity, effectiveness and efficiency. Various tools and skills are applied in the time management policies to accomplish tasks and goals of a given project. This concept involves a wide range of techniques and activities, which include: setting goals, planning, delegation, analyzing the time spent, organizing, scheduling and prioritizing.
In the past, the time management was perceived as a preserve of the work related activities and businesses. However, the term has a broader perspective and includes personal activities. The time management system is combination of designed tools, methods, techniques and processes. In any project development, time management is always a necessity, so as to ensure on time project completion within the set scope.
More important is that themes which arise from literature of the time management include the following:
Creating an environment that is conducive enough to effectiveness. This concept addresses such issues as maintenance of tidy workplace to unleash creativity and the need to protect valuable time.
Setting out priorities. These strategies are often associated with the set goals of a person. It stresses on working with the order of priority and setting gravitational goals that attract automatic actions.
Carrying out activities around the set priorities. This focuses on the simple implementation of actions in a natural rhythm. Reduction of the time spent on the non-prioritized activities – this concept also covers ways in which none priority issues are eliminated in the schedule. Reports claim that individuals spend more time for managing the lists of work to do rather than doing what is in them. This is the reason why it is always beneficial to do away with activities that have no benefit to the process performed.
Very often students find it hard to manage their time effectively, especially in the colleges and other institutions of higher learning. This happens mostly because they were perceived bright in the lower levels and they did not have any problems with task accomplishment. Unlike in high schools, where class work fills a student’s day, in the college students have less in-class time. Time management programs equip a student with the opportunity to assess how to spend time wisely and make crucial decisions on effective management of time. There is no established way of managing time; however, it is crucial to decide on how to use the available time.
Time management programs assist a student in developing his or her time management skills. A student with knowledge and skills in the time management is often at an advantage in times of furthering his or her studies. Most students, who pursue a master degree, end up finding employment opportunities and find little or no time to attend classes, to do assignments, researches and prepare for exams. Therefore, time management skills and tools are of high importance in order to succeed in their studies. Remember, time can neither be created nor destroyed; it can only be managed wisely.
2. Organization Structure
The classical management hierarchy appears early in the life of everyone, and it is always a remarkable structure. The structure is the framework through which a group functions and keeps a coalition functioning. This operating manual shows the outsider the link of the firm and operations of the system. Specifically, structures describe the ways in which the members are accepted, the leaders are chosen and the decisions are made.
Structures in an organization are inevitable. The word organization itself implies a structure whether it is chosen or implicit. The development of structures in an organization takes place due to the following: the members have clear guidelines on how to proceed. They are also shown the means to maintaining order and resolving conflicts. Structures also bind members of the system together giving a meaning of identity to those who join the group, either as internal or external stakeholders.
A structure is developed early in the initial development stages of an organization. Its development can take place at any stage and in any proportion, depending on the activities the organization is undertaking. It can also occur parallel with other activities of the organization that is going on a side-by-side basis. This means that it is the idea of a structure and it should be considered early in the organization’s life as the group grows and necessary changes are incorporated.
Every organization needs a structure that can assist in systematic operations. The structure can be used by an organization if it fits into its nature and maturity. Most organizations evolve through structures when they progress through enhancement of processes and work force. One firm may start as a pre-bureaucratic company only to end up as a matrix organization. The best structure for coalition is always hard to determine. It often depends on who the members are, the setting and how far the group has gone in its development. Regardless of the structure, three elements are inherent in the idea of the organizational structure. These are:
A form of governance – some people in the organization have to make decisions in the group, which are to be followed by others.
It outlines the rules in which the organization operates – many of the rules may be explicitly stated while others are unstated or implicit, which does not make them any less powerful.
It distributes the work in the organization – this is inherent in any organization. Distribution can be formal or informal, lasting or temporary; but each organization must have some forms of labor distribution.
An organizational structure can assist a student pursuing a master degree in the following ways. By making access to the information workable – it allows a researcher to have addresses and contacts of departments within the organization that can guide a student in collecting data from the organization concerned. It also helps a student in scheduling – this is the obvious case, that all the academic and research works must have a schedule. This is because of the governance principles developed by the department concerned. This dictates the work and schedule to each person – when to do a task and how to do it.
3. Avoiding Distractions
A person is in a distractive state if he/she has some form of divided attention other than the chosen object of attention. Causes of distraction are the inability to pay attention, lack of interest in the objective attention, attractiveness of other things apart from the object of attention. It can originate both from internal and external sources. In the workplace multitasking can be considered as one form of distraction in a situation that requires full attention of a single object. According to Gloria Mark, an average knowledge worker switches to other tasks in every three minutes. Once an individual distracted, it takes about half an hour to resume to the original work.
Ways of avoiding distractions
Controlling one’s mind is the basic measure of avoiding distractions. Obviously, controlling the environment is the origin of controlling the mind. For instance, if one is working, e.g. on a personal computer, he/she should ensure that there are minimal or no distractions at all. Turning off all sound notifications, social media and email indicators can assist in managing this. However, if the corporate culture does not prohibit it, one can put on some audio devices, even though he/she is not listening to them. Closing the programs that are entirely not useful helps to attend to the work without distractions.
Set a goal each day – goals do not have to take years to achieve, a goal is an ambition set on one’s timeline. For instance, if one would like to see the work report of the day, he/she should set up a goal and write it down .Writing down the set goals derives more power in achieving them.
Relax – sometimes, when a person is too tired and under a lot of internal pressure, it often proves difficult for him/her to stay focused. When the mind is tired, it is easily disrupted by anything that comes on their senses. For this reason staying loose and relaxed is essential at this state, because mind is in the position to work out and relax.
Always have deep motivation – it is necessary to have the best motivation. With correct motivation a person is more able to accomplish his/her tasks in a more composed manner and is less likely to lose focus because motivation undoubtedly means something.
A student, who needs to pursue a master’s degree, can adopt these strategies of avoiding distractions. This will enable the student to focus only on the important issues of his/ her project and complete his/her studies in time. Distraction is one of the many reasons that have made most students never to graduate because of delayed submission of assignments and tasks. Avoiding distractions and intrusive activities can also help a student to achieve other goals of keeping schedules and time management.