After patenting a dry plate formula and a machine for large productions of the plate, the Eastman Kodak company was established in 1880 by George Eastman. In 1884, the Kodak Corporation became a leading household name after glass photographic replacement with film role. Nevertheless, the Kodak Corporation based its success by guiding principles as international distribution, extensive advertisement, customer focus, mass production at low cost and development through continuous research.
With the dawn of colour technology, the company invested profoundly in R&D as such becoming the industry standard in 1963. By launching new products such as medical imaging and graphical arts and cameras, its sales topped US$1bn that quickly augmented to US$10bn by 1981. Presently, Kodak centers on manufacturing and marketing of consumer, professional, health as well as other imaging services. The Kodak Company operates under three segments: the health group, the graphic communications segment and the digital and Film segment.
Kodak’s ethics and Social responsibility
In support of Governance and alignment with best practices, the company is a member of the Electronics Industry Citizenship Coalition (EICC). As such, it supports the EICC Code of Conduct at the company’s facilities and throughout its supply chain. Nevertheless, the company focuses on fueling for awareness and capability throughout the supply chain for consistency of high environmental and social responsibility. Tentatively, it participates in the EICC’s Learning and Capability Work Group, Health and Safety Training Task Force and Audit Program Correction Action Task Force.
Nonetheless, the company seeks to instigate solid relationships with suppliers that exhibit fair labour practices, respect for diversity, comprehending corporate citizenship as well as an environmental responsibility. As such, Kodak has been involved in the assessment of 28 high priority suppliers against EICC expectations that recommended for augmented opportunities. Tentatively, the company has amalgamated SER capability into the supply chain to facilitate for safety and fair treatment and participate in fair and ethical business practices as well.
The Kodak Corporation has been in support of Cancer breakthrough since 2000; as such, the company has released a total of ?500,000 raised funds by 2005 alone. Moreover, the company’s imposing involvement has included decidedly triumphant sponsorship of fashion targets Breast cancer 2005 contest. Cooperating with the Women’s Weekly, the Company launched a nationwide search for a mature face to motivate the age group that requires increasing breast cancer awareness.
Kodak considers the importance of teams and effective teamwork in an organization. As such, a team helps an organization work efficiently, gain customer focus, achieve successful reconstructing of work processes and foster a cooperation spirit and teamwork in its organization. The cross-functional teams were an effort in improving the company’s efficiency. People from departments in the organization pooled ideas of augmenting a variety of processes and operational flow in the organization structure. As such, the teams brought about ideas of employees working in various departments enhancing the ability to solve problem, leading to better decision making process.
Additionally, the company has stretched over the limit in instigating management strategies that suit its organizational structure. The management impacted Kodak’s relative success as the Division of 3M was successful in sustaining innovation and quality in the company’s products. These teams consisted of R&D, sales and manufacturing department. Both teams were involved in effectively managing operational activities as well as development of new programs. The cross functional teams allowed the employees from a diverse organization to cooperate with one another in achieving a solution pertaining organizational problems. Nevertheless, to achieve these , employees have to develop a sense of camaraderie and trust in order to achieve this. This has necessitated the organization to better optimizing personnel and effectively establish a proffered decision making process.
Fuji film Cooperation
Fujifilm was established in 1934 with its headquarters based in Tokyo. Over the years the company has prided itself as being the superior in technological advancement. To realize this, the company has spent 7 percent of its sales on research and development. As such, the company was able to introduce faster films that had brighter colours by 1970. Nevertheless, the company introduced a one –time use camera in 1986, a major success against its competitor; Kodak, that had never experienced the technology on that traditional time.
The company’s ability to center on detail and the capability to adapt faster to changing markets has endeared the company to a professional market. The company realized greater improvements in the worldwide market as well as in the competitive circle, when it sponsored the 1984 Olympic Games. Moreover, it operates in 27 states and is engaged in the research, development, manufacture and sales of its products. As such, it serves a broad industrial continuum that includes the medical and life science, chemical, electronics, graphic arts, information systems and motion picture venture.
The advent of the 21st century has fueled for improved technological ventures. As such, the company’s early stages witnessed the massive advancement in the digital revolution. As a result, the worldwide demand for colour films, flagship products that have destabilized Fuji’s earnings, entered a downward spiral after a peak in 2000. Undoubtedly, Fujifilm Corporation undertook structural reforms to its Imaging Solution as well as channeling management resources in priority fields. Substantially, the company transformed its structure to a secured V- shaped recovery performance.
The global economy suffered an unprecedented recession that was fueled by a financial crisis in the fiscal year 31st March 2009. The Group swiftly worked to implement the Group- and division-wide structural reforms that effectively established a corporate constitution. To address the difficult circumstances the company drew up VISION75 management plan for the fiscal year 2004. Under the plan, Fujifilm undertook structural reforms that centered on promoting growth strategies through concentrated capital investment, Imaging Solution, shifting M&A to a holding structure and strengthening the merging management by optimizing the affiliate synergy groups.
Fujifilm’s ethical and social responsibility
Fujifilm Corporation has effectively been concerned with offering sustainable development within the society. The Fujifilm’s Group’s approach to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is to emphasize and participate in societal development. As such, the corporation has put into practice the Fujifilm’s Corporate Philosophy and a vision realization process through sincere and fair business activities.
The company identified china as among its main markets. As such, it opened offices in Beijing and Shanghai and has been involved in building new businesses in one of their largest markets. As such, having investment worth US$900 million, it is inevitable for the company to demonstrate a deep commitment to corporate social responsibility. Fujifilm is involved in environmental protection (energy and resource conservation) and contributing to the society (pink Ribbon campaign and voluntary tree planting). Per se, the company trains individuals to peruse development of safety and health training.
Fujifilm’s implemented the full spectrum of management strategies that included the VISION75 (2006). As such, the strategy encompassed three fundamental strategies: enhancing consolidated management building new growth strategies as well as enhancing comprehensive structural forms. The structural reform has drastically preserved and natured the photography venture by arguably improving revenue structure. The implementation of enhancing consolidated management has seen improvement in sales of products. These consolidation subsidiaries that include the Sankyo Chemical and Fujinon, involved in implementing the CMS (cash management system)
Fujifilm has extended its management strategy by formulating strategies for the entire corporation. As such, it serves to promote the enhancement of communication within the stakeholders and oversee corporate social responsibility as well. In addition to enhance the governance of the group management; the cooperation has instigated critical agendas for operating the companies from a standpoint. As such, the development of a CSR committee has facilitated for efficient decision making based on group policies and thus raising synergistic effects within the CSR activities of Fuji Xerox and Fujifilm. Per se, Fujifilm has effectively realized a lean and a solid management organization in effectively instigating decision making criteria, as opposed to Kodak.
In constantly changing business environments, organizations are called upon to adapt to environmental change. As such, it is the salvo of disruptions that define the modern business environment adaptation becomes a crucial task. As such various approaches may facilitate for flexibility in decision making process
The extent to which decision makers are open to key ideas is imperative during the decision making process. While the usefulness of considering a wider scope of alternatives is well known, decision makers are often influenced by familiar alternatives close to the status quo and opt for ‘off the shelf’ to ‘custom made solutions. . As such, decision making process should be open to a diversity of ideas that directly or indirectly affects the decision making process. As such, openness opens a new way for participation to contribute in the decision making process.
Secondly, there should be a sense of recursiveness during g the decision making process. The need for a systematic examination of assumption is paramount in avoiding the nonlinear nature of decision making .Nevertheless; the recursiveness concept may be shifted to employ interplay between choice and implementation. As opposed to planning comprehensively, the decision makers often find ways of tentative steps, and plan the plan after receiving feedback.
Additionally, the incorporation of two perspectives influences the flexibility of the decision making process. Undoubtedly, the criteria for selection of construct should be ideally incorporated as well. As such, the detailed theoretical rationales influence the managerial information processing capacity.