It was a real hard time for the Third World countries after the World War Two, as there were two superpowers in the World, who are vying for the supremacy of the World, the United States of America and Soviet Russia. Power was never an easy thing to share. Both USA and the Soviet Union always looked at each other with absolute suspicion and considerable mistrust. Both the countries tried to increase their share of power and hence they tried to influence the third world countries.
The United States took the policy of Containment to answer the Soviet expansion method. They wanted to accept the current strength and the number of the different Communist countries in the World, but they always tried to stop the countries to become Communist. And one of the most important aspects was the countries of South America. From the early 60s to the late 80s a number of political unrests had taken place in different Latin American countries. And at that time, number of South American countries chose Marxism and Communism as their ideals, and these became widely popular in those countries. In some of the countries, the Communist parties even won free and fair elections, for example in 1970, in Chile; Salvador Allenede became the president of Chile who was a Communist. (Kingstone and Young 35)
After the World War II, and before the Cold War became intense, the Latin American countries were highly optimistic about their relation with America. The good will of American states and solidarity these states showed among the different states played an important role in the process. The ultimate purpose of the institution was the total security of the country. There was also a charter that was signed by each member states which clearly mentioned how the states will interact with each other (Margheritis and Pereira 41). There was a very important provision in the draft, the United States has himself had helped to include, was that nobody, either group or state has the authority to involve and interfere in other state’s internal matters. This is applicable for external affairs too and it is advisable to deter from any form of indirect interventions. There should be no reason powerful enough to provoke such actions of intervention. There should not be any form of intervention in mode of not only military but also in form of cultural, economic or most importantly, political approach (Krasner 195).
It is found in the Article 15 of the Charter. Though the Organization had good ambitions and the Charter was also good, but the threat of Communism still existed at large and ultimately it engulfed the Couth African countries altogether (Black 33). It was really uncomfortable for the United States Government that the idea of Communism gaining momentum in South America and slowly becoming popular. From the reign of Monroe, United States always tried to keep a good control over its neighbors, mostly the countries in the South as it can be used as a good market for products and can be a source of labor. It was that time when USA, with the help of CIA, went of to help the Latin American militant groups who were Anti-Communist in nature (Naim 53). At that point of time, the foreign policies carried out by the United States were mainly based on the ideas of democracy and sovereignty. Here we can mention Henry Kissinger’s opinion of a communist country, Chile, which will give us the idea of democracy of the Federal and State Government. According to Kissinger he was unable to view the belief that one should allow a country to become communist even it is unanimously favored by the people of that country. As for Chile, he noted, the voters should have concentrated on more important aspects of life than vote a communist government into power (Rossiter 160).
The Cuban Revolution in the Decision Making Processes in USA
Different Latin American military personal is trained in the school of America, which is run by the United States Army. It was established in the year 1946, in Panama at FortGulickin. The main motto of the school was to teach nation building necessities such as well digging, equipment maintenance and bridge building to newly recruit military personals. The goals of the school remained less, but until the widely popular Cuban revolution in the year 1959. Fidel Castro and his comrades succeeded in two ways, one they became the rulers of Cuba and their success made a lot of Latin Americans belief in the Communist ideals. America was afraid about the advent of Communism. We can say that the Cuban revolution is a watershed Event in the decision making processes in Washington. Also the proximity of Cuba and Soviet Russia reminded USA that they might lose grip over the country at any point of time. Cuba began to help other Communist countries of Latin America and that also increased the tension of the American decision makers (Lebovic 921).
Washington responded to the pressure in different ways. Initially, the switched the curriculum of the school of America’s from practical nation building techniques to counter insurgency techniques, which it changed to become a full fledged military training school. It was successful, and we can never underestimate that. In recent times the Army has released a number of documents from the School of America; rather they were forced to submit these reports. In one of the documents we see that around 60,000 people had been graduated from the school (Youngs 119). Interestingly enough upon examination of the list it was found that there were names of several infamous and disreputable individuals in form of hired assassins, secret police and even blood thirsty dictators (Haugaard 109). Other very notable and popular as well as interesting names in the list were Juan Veasco Alvarado, Hugo Banzer Sua’rez and Vladimiro Monteinos to name a few (DeRouen and Heo 490).
Along with that there was another document, which also caused huge controversy. There was the release of seven C.I.A. handbooks; these books were used to give instructions in the Schools of America. There were several counterinsurgency methods and different techniques mentioned, and all of them were clearly violating the different ideas promoted by the Washington office, as well as international laws like the Geneva Convention. The basic idea was if a government is going to change to a Communist government, America will prefer the unstable government and will help that but always will try to stop the Communist threat. The process could be any thing, real or even imagined, but every thing is justified (Haugaard 110).
It is really disturbing to know that how USA had advocated the treatment of any legitimate opposition force, military or economical. All the potential counter-intelligence mechanisms have to be stopped. There is clear mention that if some thing gets linked to insurgency, then it will be neutralized in any cost. There is even a black list full of names that belong to enemy of the state and it covers a wide range from political leaders to armed force officials including enemy agents. There are also names of suspects, sympathizers and even collaborators (Haugaard 115). There are orders of capturing these people and subsequent detention in the jail. But there is a problem with the black list as there is no standard issues on which one can black list the person. Also it was absurd that it included names of individuals who were instrumental in funding campaigns. It also included names who were just candidates in the election process (Yeadon and Hawkins 417). But these activities can be termed as some of the basic democratic actions.