Illegal immigrants in America are defined according to three different categories. The first is those entered without legal authorization, then those who extend their legal period of stay and finally, those who violate the rules, regarding migration. The number of illegal immigrants in America multiplied by two from 2005 to 2008, the number rose to 11 million people. The government found ways to minimize this and it puts rules, governing immigrants. The illegal immigrants are arrested and prosecuted. They are termed to have violated immigration investigation and border patrol rules. The prosecution of illegal immigrants starts after deportation to home country. The research and statistic done showed that in 2008 the largest group of illegal immigrants was from Mexico, compassing 56%, the second being Latin American with 22 %, then, Central America with 13 %, Asia 6 % and the last was Africa and the other parts of the world, composing 3 %. The immigrants have caused great impact to US economy and political stability. They have influenced and changed the operation of many systems in America. The government has been spending a lot of money to deal with the issue of illegal immigrants. The government regards those unauthorized dwellers as undocumented immigrants. Many enter US for education, tours, business meeting, and visiting relatives, and after the expiry of their authorized period they fail to return to their mother countries (Smith 201).
The undocumented immigrants have outsourced the number of legal immigrants since 1990. After the Cold War, many families settled in few towns with much concentration of Hispanic communities, but they have spread to almost all parts of the country. It is estimated that about 14 million people in America live in families, whose head is an illegal immigrant. In recent years, the immigrants had great potential in life than those who have stayed in the country for many years. A quarter of those who have entered the country in recent years have college education. Illegal immigrants remain less privileged than the native born Americans and legal immigrants. 49 % of the illegal immigrants are not educated and they do not have high school certificate since they did not attend high school class, this is worse as compared to nine percent of native born American and 25 percent of legal immigrants who have not attained high school education. The illegal immigrants have been depending on legal and native born American for their survival (Uchitelle 20).
Illegal immigrants have managed to get jobs in America and they work in different sectors in America and assist in development of the economy. Research shows that in 2005, 3 % of the illegal immigrants work in agricultural sector, 33 % work in different industries sectors and around 17 % worked in different sector, ranging from construction, production, installation, and repair. The number changes each year because in 2006, “USA Today” indicated that 4 % of illegal immigrants worked in agricultural sector, performing farming duties. Illegal immigrants in America have jobs, which cannot give them huge salary and they get their payments depending on the quality of the work they perform. They have to work hard in order to get favorable salary. Their payment increases with the period a person works in a particular industry. For example, when an individual is working in agricultural sector he/she has to work for many years in order to get favorable salary. As compared to native born Americans and legal immigrants, the illegal immigrants have low income and this makes them to have poor lives (Smith 201).
The number of illegal immigrants in America does not remain constant. Those who stay for along time return to their home country. There is no account, which can be given to for the total number, because it changes each day. Illegal immigrants give birth and this increases the number. It is estimated that about 8 % of the children, born in America in 2008, were born by illegal immigrants. The number totaled to around 340,000 children who were born by illegal immigrants. In 2009, it is estimated that around 4 million children were born by illegal immigrant parents. According to the constitution, children born in the country remain legal citizens of America. From 2005 to 2009 the number of illegal immigrants in America increased by 67 % and this made the government find ways to minimize illegal entry (Uchitelle 57).
Causes of Illegal Immigrants to enter US
Mostly, illegal immigrants enter America with different intentions. There those who enter for business and other for education purposes. It is estimated that 6 to 7 million people have entered America without legal document. Most of them come from Mexico and they pay a “coyotes”. The US-Mexico border is used by many immigrants and they regard the money they pay to get assistance in closing the border as coyotes. A coyote is estimated to have a range of $ 1700 per year. Other illegal immigrants enter America legally but they stay until they become illegal immigrants. They over stay and their visa expirers and this makes them illegal immigrants. Others become illegal immigrants because of violation of the rules. Those who use border crossing card, they over stay, extending the authorized time. The card allows an individual to stay in America for some hours and when some people cross they spent a day, and they violate the card’s rule and there legality becomes null (Smith 11).
Many industries and sectors in America have interest in hiring illegal immigrants. Illegal immigrants accept little payment for their services. They perform casual jobs without complaining. This makes many sectors to like giving them jobs. This has been seen as the root cause of increased number of illegal immigrants since many people get job to support their families. The industries ensure availability of jobs to illegal immigrant. When many people loose jobs in their home countries, they migrate to America and find new jobs to earn their living. People in the market and production industry have encouraged immigrants. They claim that the sells of their products have raised and they make huge profit in Arizona. They sell their products to the immigrants and pay taxes and this promotes the economy of Arizona. The immigrants benefit native born people by improving the economy and this has made many sectors to deal with immigrants. When they receive warm welcome, they feel comfortable and stay without consideration of their legality. Those who enter with visa and get employment overstay because of the work. The students who go to study in America after graduation get jobs and stay while their visas have expired (Uchitelle 17).
Research shows that many people go to America and build their homes. They stay for many years and this makes them to have many descendants in America. They enter America without official documents but after getting jobs they build and give birth to children who do not know their parents home country. Many Mexicans have move to US to join their neighbors and relatives who migrated to America. The extent families cross the border and create network effect. Those who are left in their mother countries desire to follow their relatives who stay in America. Most of African people have moved to America to join their relatives, since they need to get jobs, which enable them to progress in life. Mostly, when one person migrates to America, he/she calls for other relatives to go and stay with him/her and those who follow later become illegal immigrants. They join their relatives and stay in door for a certain period; then, they search for job (Smith 211).
tatistics shows that the operation of American government leads to illegal immigration. The increase in cost and delay in processing of required documents for immigrants makes people to be termed as illegal immigrants. Those people, who wait for visa to be processed, wait for a long time due to government delay. For example, in 2007, there were over 1 million people who had applied for green card. They had to wait for three years, which was the period for the government of America to process the application. Many people go to America thinking that their documents will be verified but they take long and in some occasion they fail to get verification, and as a result they stay there as illegal immigrants (Uchitelle 24).
The issue of globalization and trade agreement has led to increase of immigration. People migrate from their country to search for job. They raise the standard of living and this makes them fail to get enough money to support themselves, when they return to their home countries, and as a result they opt to stay in America. There are a number of agreements, made in America, promoting free trade and this encouraged many people to contact business and fail to go back to their home countries. North American Free Trade Agreement, Worlds Trade Organization and other agreements made between different countries make people to migrate and stay in America without official document since they enter the country in the name of business (Smith 37).
American law defines an illegal immigrant as any person who has entered US without documents, overstayed or has violated immigration rules by using expired documents. According to section 1325, “in Title 8 of the US code”, the illegal immigrants should pay fines and be imprisoned. The person should be imprisoned for six month and fined for the offence. A person, deemed as illegal immigrant, faces two charges: the first one is six month imprisonment, while the second is two months imprisonment plus fine. Most of illegal immigrants stay in the country without being noticed, but when a person commits a crime or breaches security his/her citizenship is questioned and investigated by police. When found guilty of the first offence he/she is prosecuted and deported to his/her mother-county (Uchitelle 67).
The increase in migration cost has reduced the number of immigrants, while making those in America to stay. The government has introduced auditing in work place. In 2009, investigations were done at each sector to know the number of people working and their citizenship. Auditing has helped to know the legal and illegal immigrants. Those who can not produce documents to prove their legality are deported to their home countries. Auditing reduces the tendency of American sectors, employing illegal immigrants (Smith 43).
Security forces are deployed at the border to make sure that people without legal documents do not cross. They guard the border throughout the day and night. Those who try to enter they are arrested and prosecuted. Those who enter America and over stay are held in detention centers. Those who have expired visa are held in prisons and denied access and rights.
They do not have freedom of movement and as a result, they wait in prison until they are prosecuted. In 2010, around 400,000 people were deported. The deportation is determined by the American immigration law. Once an individual is arrested and termed as illegal immigrant, he/she stays under custody until prosecution (Smith 98).
Impact of Illegal Immigrants
The economy can increase or reduce due to illegal immigrants. The rich people in America have been employing illegal immigrants. They give them jobs with little pay and this reduces their cost of production. They benefit from illegal immigrants, while the economy of the country goes down. The illegal immigrants are given jobs but they are not recognized by the government and they do not pay taxes. The government increases expenses by paying law enforcement officers who are assigned at border and other areas within the country to deal with the issues of immigration. The cost of deportation of illegal immigrants is on the hands of government and this takes money out of government budget (Smith 116).
Native born Americans and legal immigrants lack jobs because many jobs are given to illegal immigrants since they accept low salaries. Illegal immigrants have increased insecurity in the country. Many terrorist are illegal immigrants. They do not identify themselves and they stay indoors until accomplishment of their mission. Illegal immigrants have led to increase of dirty market. Many people who transact illegal business hide their identity and start contacting business such as drug trafficking. Many drug dealers and exporters of guns conceal their identity. Illegal immigrants are doing tasks like fishing, planting crops and this has changed the environment since they have planted the land continuously, hence, making it infertile (Uchitelle 134).
Many people all over the world like visiting US since it is a superpower. They believe America has everything and the best services. Senior people from different countries go to US to get treatment of diseases like cancer, asthma, diabetes and other deadly disease. People should note the validity of their documents and respect the rules, governing immigration. It is shameful for an individual to be deported and people should avoid this by staying in America for authorized periods. This will enable US to spent little money on immigration and have more visitors in future. People should focus on how to improve the productivity of their own countries.