Cold war refers to a period of hostility and tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States of America during the mid 1940’s to late 1980’s. The phenomena was referred to as cold war since there was no active war between the feuding sides in what some historians attribute to the fear concerning nuclear escalation. One of the threats and danger America faced during the cold war was a nuclear war during the 1962 Cuban missile crisis. U2 American spy plane managed to take photographs of Soviet Union’s ballistic missiles that can carry nuclear payloads. The relations between China and Soviet Union were equally a potential danger to the US as tensions escalated. The Afghan war created tensions between the two sides and thus heightening the chances of war in an environment of ballistic missiles and atomic bombs. The build up weapons in 1980 by both the soviet and US after Reagan referred to Soviet Union as “evil empire”. Soviet Union collapsed due to economic weaknesses and America remained the only superpower in the world.
According to Gillespie, Galileo’s loneliness is because of rejection and isolation by the society and this had a debilitating effect on him. The loneliness of Einstein on the other hand is because of his personality: who he was. Thus, loneliness refers to a social phenomenon although others feel comfortable in solitude. Galileo Galilei’s work includes mathematical solutions and approach to problems. He put for an argument challenging the Ptolemaic worldview in relation to the earth and the sun: the unmoving earth as the centre of the universe by supporting the Copernican view of other planets including the earth going round the church. His views put him at a cross purpose with the Church which was in favor of the Ptolemaic worldview concerning the philosophy and science of the universe. In his work, he demonstrated the fallibility of certain traditional authorities. Einstein on the other hand realized that time and space is not straightforward, as they may seem appear. Instead, he proposed that the two related in unexpected but simple way that leads to among other outcomes, the surprising consequences that energy and mass are different aspects of one thing.
In 1951, James Watson was carrying out research on DNA when they met with Crick. The two wanted to try solving the structure of DNA imitate Linus Pauling’s earlier work on DNA, which failed. In 1953, the two scientists Carrick and James Watson made attempts of putting together a DNA model. They used knowledge of Wilkin and Franklin’s x-ray picture to come up with a better or accurate model. The two came up with a model showing double helix having little rings that connect two strands. The two (Crick and Watson) scientists worked together and thus they both share the credit for the discovery of DNA’s double helical structure. Earlier on, Wilkins and Franklin tried making crystal of DNA molecule. The two scientists worked on the notion that they could create an x-ray pattern if they could crystallize the DNA. The two scientists were successful in their endeavors thus creating basis for knowledge about DNA.
Mendel’s discovery on genetics was largely unrecognized during his time until 1900 partly because he did not publish his work on popular or widely read journal and partly because his work addressed the problem concerning physical basis of hereditary which most of scientists in his time did not give much thought. Mendel carried research using plants (garden pea plant) and later discovered that certain traits featured in the offspring without blending characteristics of the parents. Charles Darwin made his own proposal (wrong) concerning hereditary factors referred to as “Pangenesis”, holding that what people do in their lifetimes influence hereditary features in humans.
Scientists later merged Darwinism and Mendel’s work to come up with “New Synthesis” explaining evolution theory in genetic terms. The study on cells revealing that chromosomes equally divided whenever cells divide inspired the later interest in Mendel’s work. In 1900, three botanists Carl, Erich and Hugo independently got similar results and equally learnt that already there was an earlier (34 years) publication regarding the general theory and experimental data. Bronowski’s assertion that sexual reproduction is responsible for diversity relates to Mendel’s law of independent assortment, which proposes that during fusion, half chromosomes are paternal while the other half are maternal. The discovery of genetics by Mendel led to large acceptance that DNA is a genetic molecule thus Crick undertook research to discover and understand the structure of DNA.