Green house challenge in Australia has been a major issue of concern for the state and the general citizenry due to the increasing environmental fluctuations. There are unexplained changes in the structure of rainfall, for instance, the amount of rainfall has significantly increased in the last ten years. On issues of concern, the amount of rainfall remains unaltered in the northeastern and south western parts of Australia. The structure already in place is designed to replenish most of its sources to ensure that the state of nature maintains an ecological balance (Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology POST 2006). The rising rates of population growth rate in south eastern part of Australia have led to the strain on the existing water sources. In addition, the climatic changes that have contributed to lower levels of rainfall have led to chronic water shortages. Australia has recorded the highest amounts of gas emissions in the world into the atmosphere (Carlson, Lingl, & Carter, 2012). The businesses have been on the forefront in the regulation and control of the emissions due to the prime reasons of their effect, cost reductions (improved efficiency), the endeavor towards a lower risk management, and realization of better corporate citizenships, as well as entrepreneurship.
The term carbon footprint can be described as the amount of Green House Gases that is used to influence the level of outcome of human activities. The levels of the footprint can be expressed as the amount of Carbon (IV) oxide gas that is emitted into the atmosphere in the attempt to make human life more bearable through technological changes. For instance, the amount of carbon dioxide that is emitted by a car is justified by the level of service and convenience created (Pike & Makower, 2008). The dilemma of the convenience versus the emissions of this gas creates the perfect scenario of explanation of the Carbon Footprint. The production of basic necessities, for instance food and energy (electricity), will often result in the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, implying the conveniences of necessity created. All human activity that induces the release of the Carbon IV oxide gas in the activities of meaningful sustenance, directly or indirectly leads to the formation and the rooting of carbon foot printing (UK Carbon Trust 2008). The term is often used as a first step in most organizations in the management of carbon emissions. The EPA’s Carbon Management Principles are measures that were laid down for businesses to embrace as guidelines on how to combat the emissions. These principles can be named as accuracy, completeness, consistency and transparency. In the help of businesses to achieve this objective, there are national and international norms (regimes) that provide guidance on the mode and form of carbon footprint. In efforts t reduce carbon emission, EPA might opt to either stop the carbon-emitting companies from being established or allow them be established but be strict on the ways of reducing carbon emission.
Current Global Practices to Green House Gases
There are multiple global practices towards the use of carbon dioxide. Firms all over the world have interconnected through the context of globalization in the handling of business practices. The scope of this decision and move of operation aims at the preservation of nature for the future generations. Several initiatives take the form of these global practices, for instance, flushing of rain water for the office and staff, heating of water through solar energy, the production of efficient office systems that reduce power consumption, plumbing of rain water for irrigation and the installation of SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) systems to monitor the level of energy consumption (Wiedmann & Minx, 2008). For instance, Ferguson Plarre launched the first Hybrid truck that minimizes the level of green house gas emission. Other firms have extensively engaged in mass planting of trees to try and offset the greenhouse effect through the natural carbon cycle. Fergusson introduced the pastry and delicious cakes that are carbon negative. This has been a major milestone in the exemplary form of leadership and a leap towards a meaningful environmental control (Wright, Kemp & Williams, 2011).
The countries all over the globe have tried to preserve nature in the best of interest in survival of the present and future generations. For instance, under the UN charter, nations have the exclusive autonomy over the natural resources that are available in their territorial jurisdiction. However, they are obliged to maintain preservation measures to ensure that damage to the environment does not extend beyond the borders (Takle, 2008). The developed nations have exhibited the highest form of environmental degradation, to the extent that, they have come together through regional organizations as global contextual change in the preservation of the environment (Ralph & Kramm, 2011). Eastern Europe has adopted national policies that will curb the greenhouse remittance. The developing nations have been instrumental in the assisting of the developing countries in order to deal with the conventions obligations and requirements on the climatic effects and changes. More nations have emerged in the provision of technology that is environmentally friendly (Mark, 2005). In summary, the global expectations of each nation entail: reliable data on the levels of greenhouse emission, regular and sound updates on the control of emissions, cooperation in impact of climatic changes and cooperation in the drought prone areas.
The New Zealand Business Council for Sustainable Development (NZBCSD) is a group of nations that have come together in the field of responsible business operations in terms of environmental conservation and protection (Schroeder, 2000). Every aspect of economic growth and development requires a significant amount of capital and technological shifts. The creation of which, leads to the emission of CO2 into the atmosphere (Takle, 2008). As an organization, NZBCSD is a collection of corporations from over thirty countries and over twenty industrial sectors. The main aim of the organization is the promotion and sustenance of the environment amidst economic development and advancement. The organization encourages the use of corporate social responsibility towards the society in its endeavors towards industrial advancement (World Energy Council Report (2004). The main aim of the organization is to ensure that industries, corporations and business entities engage in responsible environmental ethics that will ensure the survival of the future generations.
Carbon Footprint Responses
NZBCSD responses to carbon footprint include; the debates over the changes in the climate policy on the reasoning of science versus the happenings of nature that has dwelled for long among the masses (Estill, 2011). There are those who do not understand the happenings of nature as induced by the human activities but rather as the changes and shifts in the natural set-up. The stand of the business council lies in the advice of scientists whose research is inclined to environmental changes and alterations through the use of fossils by humans (NZBCSD, 2002). As a business council, the response was a quantifiable scientific fact which helps in the formation of sound economic policies and financial forecasts. The long awaited international agreement on the use of environmental convention that is expected to expire this year. This presents various uncertainties in the expectations of an agreement that could take time before it is launched.
The response that was given by the council advocated for new regional organizations on the conservation of the environment in the formation of mergers between the developing and developed nations. This creates the uncertainty in the formation of new costs of GHG emissions all over the globe ranging from the industrial to the agricultural sectors of the economy. The best moves in these responses were attained through the formation of a regime to try and control activities of the countries after the current environmental regime collapses in 2012 (Wright, Kemp & Williams, 2011). The formation of price-based measures as structured by the economy versus the norms that regulate the behavior of firms raises the key question of emissions trading against the charging of the emissions. The response of the council was the favoring of the price based solutions that are based on economic instruments in order to solve the emerging problem of sustainability.
Multiple inferences emerge on the level of participation of corporations. The multi-nationals located in the United States and Australia does not put a high value in participation in the Greenhouse Challenge program (McKay, Pollack, & Courtin,1991). The problem often arises in the formation of policies without proper follow up of action. In spite of participation in the Greenhouse Challenge programs, most multinational corporations avoid the real scenario of cost application (Robbins, no date). Among the fifteen multi-national firms that participated in the Greenhouse Challenge program, there emerges a new issue of diversity instead of a common appeal towards a singular issue of sustainability.
This dispersion of firms leads to the lack of a significant number of firms or core sectors where multinationals are members of the Greenhouse Challenge. The Greenhouse Challenge program helps to promote their pro-active stance toward environmental sustainability. Therefore, multinationals miss out on the advantage of the positive image created by the program (Businger,
Guthrie, 1980). BP Amoco is a traditional industry for the heavy greenhouse effect, which is considered vital in the assessment of impact. Such traditional industries are significantly missing in the contribution of the program. Other traditional industries which did not have any multi-nationals which participated in both programs are the mining sector and the textiles, paper and wood manufacturing sector. This can be blamed on the type of membership and diversions in other organizations, for instance, the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD), is in a journey of encouraging firms to incorporate the business ideals of sustainability in their decision making processes.
The organizations should amend acts that regulate and control the activities of the state. This can be done through a policy plan of action that involves a ten step policy plan action. Firstly, there should be adoption of principles and protocols that ensure credibility and accountability in the sector. This includes accountability in all strategies aimed at reduction of green house gas emission. This will help to bring about efficiency (Lisa, 2010). There is also the need to set up goals, which ensure that initiatives are participatory in the state management. Setting up of organizational boundaries would help to define the scope that the institution can undertake in execution of its activities. This is in tandem with establishment of clear and concise operational boundaries (Tomas, 2004). Additionally, it is of paramount importance to ensure quality management of inventory control. The organization should be able to establish the amount of its emissions into the atmosphere, in a bid to account for its green house effect. This should be well monitored to indicate whether there is any progress made in reduction of the emissions.
The organizations can also take up the recommendations outside the ten step policy plan. These recommendations are first, a general improvement in the availability of information. Secondly, the corporations should build the capacity to guide them in the successful realization of the intended policy objectives (Cork, 2010). This helps to avoid potential distractions and alternative policy plans that may tend to veer a state off the intended realization. Thirdly, the organization should invest in explanatory documents, for instance, the green house gases Protocol, the NGER Determination, NGA Factors and others in order to have informed solutions (Australian Commodities, 2007). It aids the research centers in the access to information when needed for research and compact uses. Moreover, there should be the development of the specific target audience. This ensures an efficient allocation of resources to the right and intended groups of people. In addition, the advancement of technology should be a priority in the management of emissions, for instance, through use of solar energy to control carbon dioxide emissions (Henderson-Sellers, McGuffie, & Kendal, 2005). Lastly, there should be well laid down structural arrangements to deal with emerging issues in the society.
There are organizations that have already taken up the challenge of GHG program. These organizations include, BP Oil New Zealand Limited, Hubbard Foods Limited, Land care Research, Meridian Energy Ltd, Milburn New Zealand Ltd and Urgent Couriers Limited. These organizations have set up exemplary frontlines in the emission of carbon dioxide through carbon printing and the green house gas emission programs. The future of the generations to come depends on the skillful use of the present resources towards sustainability of the environment. It is the role of multinationals to ensure resourceful use of the environment to avoid alterations in weather changes and the rest of the adverse effects of misuse of nature.