Several things need to be considered in the data collection process. One of the things is the tools that are used to collect data. In the study conducted by MM Chabeli in his article Portfolio Assessment and Evaluation: Implications and Guidelines for Clinical Nursing Education, the main tool used to collect data was focus group interviews. The sample under study is also important. Chabeli’s study involved 20 students. Unexpected events can be minimized during data collection by ensuring that the interviews are properly trained. In Chabeli’s study, the interviewer’s were selected based on their expertise, skills and knowledge that they had. Errors in clinical decision making can be reduced by ensuring that the interviewers record the correct data that they collect from the respondents. Chabeli interpreted the data collected from his study by looking at the results that he collected from the interview and compared them with the results that were reported by other studies that were done by previous scholars on the same subject.
Frame of reference was also used in the interpretation of the data collected from this study. Credibility tests were done on the research findings and the results obtained proved that this research could be used in the field of nursing. Objectivity during interpretation of data was achieved by assigning the participants random numbers instead of using their names. Confidentiality was also maintained on the data that was collected from the participants. Legal considerations should also be observed during interpretation of data. In Chabeli’s study, the interpretation of data was free from errors and bias ensuring that it is legal. Findings from an evaluation process should be reported in a way that the readers and respondents can easily understand. Chabeli reported his study findings systematically making it easy for respondents to understand. Chabeli could improve the evaluation results by using a larger sample. These results can be used to improve learning in clinical education. However, the evaluation process is costly since it is expensive to conduct interviews.
One of the test items covered in the NCLEX test is Health Promotion and Maintenance. Health Promotion and Maintenance mainly evaluates the ability of a nurse to oversee detection and prevention of health problems of a patient. This test item addresses content areas such as disease prevention, family planning, expected body image changes, health promotion programs, high-risk behaviors and human sexuality. Some of the concepts that are addressed in this test item include calcium deficiency, safe sexual practices, attachment to newborns and immunization. The test item is clear and understandable. The area of health promotion and maintenance is critical to the nursing practice. All nurses are supposed to know the various techniques that they can use to prevent diseases. It shows that this area is clear and understandable. I agree with the level of cognitive ability addressed. This is because this level will ensure that all the nurses taking the test have enough knowledge on the area of health promotion and maintenance.
I also agree with integrated process and concept that utilized in this test item. Nurses will have vast knowledge to improve their nursing skills. Client needs are also addressed in this test item. It ensures that the health of the patient is monitored. The strategy of test taking also ensures that only nurses who are qualified in this field practice as nurses. Patient satisfaction will be achieved because of this. The test is also a valid indicator of the knowledge of the students and their performance. It focuses on diverse fields of public nursing ascertaining that only nurses with this knowledge qualify. The stem of the item is neutral since it allows the student to answer the responses without any influence. There is no distracter since all the questions are credible ensuring that they test the required areas.
Test items can be written using multiple-choice format. In this format, the invigilator may decide to use close-ended questions in order to limit the respondents to particular answers that he/she expects to get. This technique can be used to investigate whether a particular objective in nursing education has been met by looking at the number of the correct responses chosen by students taking NCLEX test. It is also easy to estimate the reliability of the results collected from multiple-choice questions. This is because statistical analysis can be easily done on results collected from multiple-choice questions since it collects qualitative data. Variance analysis and other statistical tests can be conducted on this data therefore ensuring that this data is credible and valid.
The test item can also be written in interview format. An advantage of writing the test in this format is that it allows the students to give elaborate responses on a particular issue that it being tested in the NCLEX test. From the elaborate responses, the invigilators are able to know whether the students clearly understand particular response being tested. Thus, the examiners will be able to know whether the objectives of the test are met. Interview questions mainly collect qualitative data. The examiner can use his/her judgment to determine whether the qualitative data collected valid and credible. However, the judgment of the examiner may be affected by bias making the results collected to be unreliable.
The test item can be written in a format that tests the critical thinking skills of the students. Critical thinking helps to improve the reasoning power of nurses so that they are able to use the knowledge that they have to make quality decisions in the nursing practice. Critical thinking skills of nurses can be tested by analyzing whether they can apply nursing knowledge in the practical world. However, the reliability of the responses given cannot be accurately tested since they will give varied responses. However, the responses given will be credible and reliable since they will relate to the nursing field.