This research paper discusses various aspects pertaining to anti-terrorism. This will include the history of the organizations and tactics which are intended to fight terrorism. It will also discus the threat posed by the terrorists in United States. It also talks of efforts which have been made to get lid of terrorism. The paper also tries to analyze the anti-terrorism actions effectiveness and how they can be improved. Lastly, it will discuss prediction regarding the future of organization, tactics and their effectiveness.
Anti-terrorism organizations have been there for a long time. Since then many forces have come up in the view of fighting terrorism. These forces comprise of military groups which have gone through vigorous training and adequately equipped to fight antiterrorism. These organizations have been part of United States all through the warfare against terrorism. The United States has many of these organizations. One is the ‘U.S. Air force Tactics team. It has its beginning dating back to the Second World War. Since the end of the second world war this organization has participated in various special operations in many parts of the world including; central America, Africa, Europe, South East Asia, and in the Middle East just but a few (Hoffman, Inside terrorism, 2 ed, 2006) .
Another Anti-terrorist organization is the Special Operations Forces an organization hatched about 20 years ago or so. This organization is made up of tiny units from the forces, such as the Marine Corps, Army, Air Force and Navy Seals, that are qualified and set to conduct exceptional anti-terrorist operations, to try to fight terrorists. This organization began after the Operation Eagle, attempt hostage salvage at the U.S embassy in the year 1980, in Iran. The force was directed by Admiral James L. Holloway III, former Chief of Navel Operations. Special Operation Command has been active ever since 16 April, 1987; by this time the group had participated in a lot of operations, since the 1989 raid of Panama ongoing up to the present war on Iraq. Another organization fighting terrorism is the United States Army Special Force unit. Just like the former, this organization also has its origin dating back to the Second World War. Some of the teams duty include; foreign internal defense, direct action, unconventional warfare, counter-proliferation, counter-terrorism, information operation and psychological operations.
The history of terrorism can be traced back to about 2000 years back. This came with the emergence of Jewish fanatic groups one of which is the sicarii. The term terrorism came to birth in 1793 when Maximilien revolutionized the French. The first recorded instance of terrorism came about in 1622 during the attack of Jamestown colony by Powhatan Native Americans which led to the killing of about a third of inhabitants (Hoffman, Inside Terrorism, 1998).
Ku Klux Klan as First Terrorist Organization
Although there were cases of rebellion in the U.S, the first terrorist organization after the birth of the American republic was Ku Klux Klan a white supremacist organization in 1867. It was at first a non violent organization led by Nathan Bedford a former conference general. However 1868 marked the change of the peaceful organization to a violent one beating up, intimidating and murdering black voters as well as the supporters of the Republican Party. Their intimidations and attacks were aimed at shaping voting patterns in Gorgia statev among others quick redemption and a return to a conservative white democratic control by 1871. It was not until after a massive crackdown and a suspension to Habeas Corpus did the organizations disintegrate (Deen, 2005).
This only marked the beginning of terrorism as by the end of the KKK in1872, another movement emerged. The “first wave “of international terrorism stuck the United States in 1886 bombing of the Haymarket. Anarchist terrorism continued until 1927 with the execution of Bartolomeo Vazetti and Nicola Sacco on the claim of robbery and murder. In the intermediate period a series of murders and bombing had been high with the climax being the assassination of the then United states president McKinley in 1901.Others had been the failed assassination attempt on the attorney general ,the wall street bombing in 1920 leading to the loss of at least 30 lives. In response to the bombing the attorney general ordered a series of dragnets directed to the immigrant communities known as the “Palmer Raids” holding many indefinitely, detaining thousands of others, detaining some or sentencing others to death or life imprisonment based on inconclusive evidence. Eventually, anarchist seemed to have faded in America. However the bombing of the Wall Street and other minor attacks persisted (uergensmeyer, 2000).
Between 1920s and 1960s, there were relatively very few terrorist attacks. This period is referred to as “anti-colonial wave” by David Rapoport a famous terrorism historian which he thought was as a result of lacking overseas territorial possessions. An exception to these is the port of Puerto Rico, which was the origin of 1954 terrorists who committed the shooting of congress. America would experience a significant rise in terrorist attacks mainly on the main land since 1960 which continues to date. Between 1960 and the 1991 fall of the Soviet Union saw the operation of ethno-nationalists, anti communists and primarily leftist’s organizations. These groups include ;Black Liberation Army, Weather Underground Organization, Liberation army, the Symbionese, the National Liberation Armed Forces and other militants of Puerto Rico, Al-Fuqra and various white Supremacists.
From 1960s to 1970s there was institution of counter intelligence program (COINTELPRO) by the FBI which directed towards the various left wing organizations including ‘white hate’ organizations such as the KKK. However public outcry the various church investigating committees investigating COINTELPRO resulted to the 1978 enactment of Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act and barred the use of counterintelligence investigation techniques on domestic terrorism. From the start of 1990s to the present times, majority of attacks on the United States came from the white nationalists. Some of them were prevented, except some like the Oklahoma City bombing of 1995 and 1933 attack on the World Trade Center.
The High Level of Cyber Terrorism
The present level of terrorist menace towards United States concerning technology is lofty. This partly due to the rising number of people well skilled in the uses of technical marvels for example, the computer and Web. Between 1970s and 1980s computers were the specialized industry’s language, where a small number knew the potential success of this device. After that, the net was only a project for interactions designed by the American government and later on institutionalized by various universities across the state. Times are diverse now and hence what was once a dream long ago is now in practice now (Van Cleave, 2007).
The prevalent raise of computer literate populace opens the doors for terrorist attacks, as the greater the number caught up the smoother the act can be carried out. The Internet acts as a “park” for people worldwide and daily, crimes occur just like City Street. The appetite for well orchestrate terrorist campaign over the net is rising, even with the help of the 2001 Patriot Act. This is due to the reality that other countries have dissimilar security procedures on the use of the net, and some have none at all. Moreover, it is evident that people that live in America do not live by lawful values on the Web either.
In addition to Cyber Terrorism there exist other technical advances which swell attack by terrorist organizations. Satellite phones, cell phone GPS navigation, instantaneous wire transfers and faster transport modes few examples that show the technology progress. This boost also acts as feeding ground for international support, where various terrorist groups have the ability to implement universal campaigns and a prospect to mask or move depending on the rapid improvement of intelligence assembly techniques. Technology simplifies life, but consequently makes terrorist life much simpler too.
Terrorist organizations are mostly cellular organizations comprising of independent cells. It is thus expected for these organizations to rapidly adapt. The organization’s design or form greatly influences its adaptability and performance, and capacity to communicate. It follows that the organizations can be weakened by hampering with their design. Terrorist groups are mostly characterized as vibrant networks personnel connections characterizing the nature of the evolution. This means that analysis of social network will be instrumental in characterizing the Core structure and in identifying vulnerabilities (Van Cleave, 2007).
In general, these organizations develop as they face unexpected changes in their setting, rapidly developing technologies and adaptive opponents. In the last decade, improvement has been realized in understanding the factors that enable adjustment and partially improved models of adaptive network are now existent. The result will be that in the immediate period, there appears to exist tradeoff stuck between adaptively and an extremely elevated performance in groups. This suggests that compelling an organization to adjust should condense its performance. Thus, even though a player is no longer the most effective, a mere segregation of that player may be enough to be unsettling.
There is also another methodological approach based on the applying of a multi-agent set-up mold of co-evolution of “observers” network (the blue network) including the “terrorists” network (the red network) whereby the observers can obtain only a small data on the basic covert network which evolve naturally and in reaction to observers attacks. This approach builds off organizational hypothesis and societal network hypothesis, including machine learning and vibrant network analysis. Specifically, there has been a development of computational mold of vibrant cellular organizations and has been used to gauge a number of optional strategies for cellular networks destabilization.
Intelligence Communities and Law Enforcement in United States
The resistance of America in opposition to acts of global terrorists rests with the intelligence communities and law enforcement. In the United States, national security agencies and federal law enforcement have taken up the leadership role in the anti-terrorism inquiry. Due to various federal statutes inclusive to huge technological ability, federal agencies are accountable for collecting raw intelligence from various human and technical assets, at home and overseas. Also, these agencies responsible for the avoidance of terrorist attacks including inquiry of attacks should they arise. The sector of Justice is in charge of trial of those individuals implicated in either conspiracy or the attack (Khan, 1987).
While there are numerous state statutes that swathe terrorists’ crime, it is collectively approved that it is just the federal government that possess the means to carry out intelligence actions and the multifarious investigations and prosecutions of worldwide terrorist actions. Not forgetting the federal function, there are many areas where the states and the local governments take part in a significant task in matters of anti-terrorist. These comprise emergency retort to the assault by fire, medical personnel and police; single out critical target amenities; supplying manpower to local task forces; getting equipment and infrastructure technology for primary responder use; and the setting up and execution of necessary long-term medical support or biological instrument neutralization. Local authorities also have the duty to control instant facility harm and to acquire other desirable resources to bring back the immediate state under control.
It is now obvious that the intelligence community and federal law enforcement performed disappointingly prior to the actions of the September 11, 2001. Ever since that time their feat has not distinctly improved! The key flaw of various federal law enforcement agency lies with their conceit towards other local agencies and federal state. Unfortunately, there is modest justification for the outlook. One of the serious ramifications of this attitude is the malfunction of federal law enforcement agency to treat the ability of other agencies with value. In spite of the reality that state police, police officers and a Customs Administrators have frustrated three terrorist incidents in the past several years, these agencies were not alerted of al-Qaeda group in the United States preceding September 11th, nor were they armed with appropriate information regarding the ongoing analysis to locate extra suspects. Since then, there have been empty promises of increased collaboration in the giving of secret clearance and other ways sharing information. Some development has been made, though a lot remains to be desired before all agencies responsible for law enforcement the United States are realigned in a joint effort to combat prospect acts of terror.
It is important that Americas first line of guard against terrorism the 700,000 officers on streets be given sufficient training and backdrop information on terrorism, techniques and methods of the terrorists groups, and the probability of an pending attack. The grounds this information is supposed to be shared, or made available, is not so as the local police and state can be drawn in the inquiry of individual terrorists or terrorist cells, or collecting raw aptitude information. It is plainly that these officers are aware of their terrain and are on street all day and night. Bearing in mind that the terrorists responsible for the attack of the World Trade Center were on several occasions stopped by local police preceding the attack of minor traffic violation, it is reasonable to presume that this pattern of abrupt interception would carry on in the future. When a similar situation happens, our state and local officials should have backdrop information by which to land at a reasonable notion. Thereafter, the officers ought to have the skill to access state statistics banks to aid in the further decision of the prevailing matter. This is a critical asset in our endeavors to restrain terrorism.
For many years the Federal Communication Commission has delayed on giving public safety organizations sufficient spectrum for radio infrastructure. Yet radio communications which are inter-operative are necessary for sufficient response to the national emergency. If communication hiccups of the 9 -11 cannot convince the FCC to reverence the public’s requirement for extra continuum from the spectrum which is in their possession then only Lord knows what will budge this unfathomable agency to act. United States also require putting up a system through which public security agencies can converse through the net. The tool to build such a scheme is already in place taking an example of Florida which has built a very successful system. The price of merging the accessible systems and then extending the scheme to all law enforcing agencies is not immense. The Justice Department issued a lay down of proposals on April 2002 regarding improved communication between law enforcing agencies. These proposals call for financing and implementation as soon as possible (Deen, 2005).
America’s Success in Fight Against Terrorists
America is winning the fight against terrorists. She has finished the Taliban rule and the al Qaeda’s secure refuge in Afghanistan. The triumph over the Taliban has come before success in other parts of the planet. But the war has just begun. As the former President Bush repeated time after time, America is in just in the starting stages of a lengthy fight against terrorist organization and their supporting nations. America and cooperate nations have brought forward a wide variety of capabilities to fight terrorism. The various activities undertaken show the degree by which The United States is betrothed in a new war. The United States and other cooperating nations anti –terrorist organizations formed a global alliance with at least other70 countries in the fight against terrorism; conducted triumphant military operations leading to a change in regime in Afghanistan; provided independence and humanitarian liberation to the oppressed people found in Afghanistan; Frozen terrorists’ possessions and limited the money flow that enable terror; and subjugated unprecedented intellect capabilities to track, locate and catch terrorists on the run.
Several recent high-status events shown that America and her allies are making progress: On the September 11, 2002, the Pakistani forces apprehended Ramzi Binalshibh a key associate of al Qaeda sect that designed and performed the 9-11 attacks. Days later, on September the 14, 2002, at least five men were charged with giving material support to the terrorists. They are thought to have been part of an al Qaeda-trained terrorist sect on U.S. soil. Over the past year the federal government has made significant progress improving the nation’s security at the borders. Aside from arrests, the various agencies previously responsible for border security made great advances in detection and prevention using data resources, new technology and international partnerships as key tools.
Most Anti-terrorism strategies engross an add up to the standard police and home intelligence. The central actions are traditional; the tracing of persons and interception of communication. New knowledge has expanded the diversity of military and also law enforcing operations. To decide on the effectual action when terrorism seems to be an isolated event, the correct government organizations require knowing the motivation, source, tactics and methods of preparation of terrorist organization. Good aptitude is the key of such grounding, including social and political awareness of any complaints that might be dealt with. Ideally, one gets the information from within the organization, a very tricky challenge for HUMINT as the operational terrorist cells usually are modest, with all group members well-known to the others.
Also the Anti-terrorism forces ought to close the boundaries of any terrorist crossing; keep original terrorist strength miniature and Anti-terrorist efficiency high; have huge initial Anti-terrorist forces; shun incentives for bandwagoning and any growing compassion for the terrorist. In keeping the compassion factor diminutive, policy should hold back from the public of any information concerning the terrorists’ activities or success. The action of terrorists and Anti-terrorists happens within the public from which the members are drawn. As terrorist and Anti-terrorist activity increase, so is the need for recruitment. Whatever the terrorists targets, there are various ways to harden the targets to stop the terrorists from striking their target, or minimizing the harm of attacks. One way is by placing Jersey barrier or any other sturdy barriers outside politically sensitive or tall buildings to stop car and bombing of trucks (Hoffman, Inside Terrorism, 1998).
A more stylish target-hardening move must consider industrial as well as other vital industrial infrastructure open to attacks. Terrorists don’t need to import chemical weaponry if they can result to a major industrial mishap such as the Halifax explosion or the Bhopal disaster. Industrial chemicals in shipping, manufacturing and storage call for greater shielding, and a lot of efforts in place. Equipping likely terrorist marks with containers of pig lard has worked in discouraging attack by suicide bombers of Islamic origin. The method was actually used on by British authorities on a limited scale in 1940s. The approach comes from the thought that Muslims carrying out the attack wouldn’t like to be “contaminated” by the flab in the instant prior to their death. The thought has been recommended of late as prevention to suicide bombings in Israel.
The Anti-Terrorist organization in the United States is continuing to realize its success in the fight against terrorism and the future looks promising going by its recent achievement of getting rid of the leader of arguably the biggest terrorist sect Osama Bin Laden. This is just the beginning of the end of the long awaited victory against terrorism. However to win this epic battle, more mechanisms are being put In place such as increasing its numbers in line with the large scope in physical terms( vast areas, high traffic volumes especially in busy cities) including other dimensions including, degree of terrorist threat. Also plans are underway to bring collectively various state-of-the-art technologies to allow persistent intellect, surveillance and investigations missions, and facilitate potential actions. Flexibility is also being included in shaping terrorism system design in the shape of options that can be carried in the days to come when fresh information is accessible. Using these’ option will generate a flexible Anti-terrorism scheme that has the capability to deal with fresh necessities that may arise.