Animals and humans eat food every day to transform it into energy and maintain the biological processes inside their bodies. Every food has its own set of calories. When we eat more calories, we get more nutrients for our bodies and, as a result, we gain weight. Dietary carbohydrates help the body to get energy as disaccharides, polymers, starch and glycogen. Especially the seeds, which are produced by starch polymer. Seeds must be broken into more simple forms.
Rupert is an ordinary cow, but he is different in a certain way, comparing to other cows on the farm. His leg did not look fat rather than muscular. So Nivanka imagines his muscles structure. Rupert muscles comprise with muscles fibers and bundles together in bundles. Every muscle fiber has fibrils. There are two filaments, thick and thin. Thicker filaments contain the protein myosin, actin, and actin protein. Aktina molecule is the part of the contractile apparatus in muscle cells. Myosin is an important protein in the muscles contract. Myosin and actin cooperate together and help the muscles to produce the movement. Walking gestures makes Rupert’s myosin molecules move. To perform movement actions, the myosin molecules need to move. Before myosin molecules start to move, ATP must change its form. ATP associates with one of the myosin, and then binds to the following myosin. When there is no myosin, ATP binds to the actin. Myosin molecules break down from ATP to ADP and phosphate. While Nivanka imagines Rupert’s leg, suddenly he starts going up the hill. Rupert moves a lot, so with time his muscles get exhausted and have a lack of ATP. Because of that, the body starts to use some extra oxygen from his blood. Our bodies are usually stored with supplemental oxygen for emergency situations. In addition, he’s breathing, so it’s not a problem to get to the top of the hill.
The enzymes are the proteins. Their purpose is to accelerate the reaction. Most enzymes have a substrate for production. The substrate has a certain shape; therefore it must bind to the same form of the substrate. Enzymes are also made to balance the level of activity. Enzymes help to react to glycolysis. As we eat some food, we make glucose. Glucose is the compound, converted by the enzyme. Glycolysis has a similar step with four different enzymes of glucose to two pyruvates. As a result of the metabolism of glucose, hydrogen atoms pass from glucose to oxygen. Glucose wastes oxygen from carbon atoms and produces H2O with the help of hydrogen atoms. For the future process, the atoms of hydrogen go to the NAD. During glycolysis, there is a specific vitamin that is niacin. Nicotinic acid is particularly built by NAD, which is the enzyme-assistant.
While Rupert inhales, some vitally important processes take place in his body. To sustain life, Rupert absorbs oxygen, eats food, drinks water and extracts energy from all that. The glucose is necessary for this reaction, which includes six carbon atoms, after that glucose breaks down into two pyruvates, which are three-carbon molecules. The process is called glycolysis. In a result of the process, it builds two pyruvate and ATP from ADP and phosphate. During the glycolysis, there are helpers, consisting of the specific enzymes, which are the vitamins. The process consisting glucose and two pryuvates, needs four enzymes to speed up the process and react metabolism. One of the necessary vitamins is niacin, and it is also an enzyme booster. After glycolysis, the mitochondrial metabolism takes place and it requires oxygen. The process uses compound A, which is pyruvate. While using oxygen, the reactions convert pyruvate to low energy compounds: CO2 and water. The mitochondrial ATP synthesis is processed by oxidation of hydrogen. There is a transport membrane protein on rotational subunits. Proton binds to the subunits and the channels send proton into mitochondrial interior. As sending proton, ADP and phosphate combine. After that the synthesis diffuses ATP.
Before Rupert starts his climbing, he eats a certain amount of grass, which is processed into glucose. Mostly, Rupert enjoys climbing the hill until he is exhausted. While he is climbing he inhales more often and his muscles use oxygen, which is stored in muscle myoglobin. His leg muscles will start to feel very tight, it is a sign that muscles can’t make enough ATP because of high physical activity. Unlike Rupert, Francine has a lack of myoglobin, which stores oxygen. So she should be out of shape because she uses it to make ATP myosin to work. It is difficult for her muscles to change their shape, because there is not enough ATP for them. While she is climbing, she suddenly thinks that the fermentation process starts and that she receives energy without using oxygen. She remembers about the process of the lactic fermentation, because Francine has made the research on fermented products for the project for several months ago. The lactic acid fermentation releases electrons of pyruvic acid to lactic acid molecules tow. In addition, a lactic acid bacterium causes the fermentation, like yogurt, wine, pickles and sourdough bread. Her leg muscles are also using fermentation for rapid ATP.
To grow big enough, we have to eat the certain amount of protein. Meat, eggs, dairy products, beans, they all serve as a source of protein. Thus, people are trying to make a good deal for the breeding of animals for food. Rupert provides protein for people in a shape of a burger. These days, most people live in cities, so they are not able to make a flock of animals. People also want to get high quality food at a lower price. They build a large cattle ranch and consumers buy products at low prices. Farmers feed their cows with corn instead of grass, because it helps the cows to make larger amount of glucose for a short period of time. Rupert is also one of the thousands of cows that eat corn. So Rupert is not going to be tough and stringy, instead he will have more fat, because he is being fed with corn, so his meat will have better marbling. Rupert probably gets estrogen implants to gain weight faster. Feeding with corn and getting the estrogen implanted makes cows grow faster, get fatter and reduce the cost of meat. Cows usually eat grass, and there are specific gastric rumens to digest grass. However, people use corn instead of grass for our benefit. Changing the ration affects the digestive system of cows, especially in the rumen.
Methanogens in the rumen break down the cellulose to obtain glucose. Corn consists out of starch, which cows can break down by enzymes and non-methanogen bacteria’s in their rumen. While cows eat their corn, there raises a question, is the glucose breakdown faster than the cellulose breakdown by the methanogen? Because there is enough glucose in rumen without methanogens, the cows are able to survive with non-methanogen. Commonly cows excrete lactic acid, which reduces the level of pH in the rumen, but feeding them with corn unbalances the level of acidic, so the rumen does not need to grow up the methanogens bacteria.
Chewing is a very important activity for a cow. The fibrous material of the corn’s cell wall is hard to digest, especially by the methanogens. Also the fibrous material blocks the entrance of rumen. The fibrous material interrupts the masticatory process of the cows, so the rumen swells. This can serve as a cause of death for a cow. To cure the swelling of the rumen, we need to use the antibiotics and prevent the growing of non-methanogen bacteria. The prevention of growth of non-methanogen bacteria, balances the acidity, and methanogens digest the fiber of a corn cell wall. The antibiotics also prevent cows from diseases. However, the antibiotics have their bad sides. Some meat still contains bacteria, like Salmonella, with resistance to antibiotics. As people feed the cows with corn, the cows grow faster. However, we have to use antibiotics to protect the cows from diseases. Feeding cows with corn makes a huge number of bacteria on the rumen, so people can’t stop using antibiotics to cure diseases. From that reason, we are using antibiotics continuously on cows. We also try hard to find antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Most common antibiotic resistant bacteria are called E.coli, which is non-pathogenic. However, some of E.coli can cause serious disease, which is O157:H7. The strain can be found in ground beef. The bacteria can get into the burgers, because the bacteria are mixed with the meat of beef from contaminated and non-contaminated sort. And then, the meat protects the bacteria from the heat of cooking. Uncooked meat can also be the cause of O157:H7 disease.
In natural ecosystems, there are more herbivores than carnivores, because of the 10 percent rule. Between plants and animals, plants start every food chain. And the animal becomes a consumer to eat the other to maintain living. Rupert is also a consumer who eats grass. When Rupert eats grass, he metabolizes ninety-eight percent to CO2 and water, and consumes two percent, as his body weight. Animals use ninety-eight percent of food to molecule ATP, which appears to be the protein synthesis and it repairs and maintains the activities of the daily life. Ten percent rule means that the total MSS carnivore is no more than ten percent of the mass of herbivores. This rule makes that predators keep producing for a larger population. If the rule breaks, there will be too much food for herbivores and the population of herbivores will start to grow rapidly, so herbivores would starve. To compare the vegans and meat-eaters, we also use the ten-percentage rule. When we eat plants or meat, we get the same amount of food, divided by ten times according to the rule. But we have to feed cows to get more beef. It is ten times of vegan’s need, so meat-eaters need a lot more farmland than vegans. As a rule, cows eat much more corn than a vegan does. Today, we get to choose what kind of food we want to eat. However, there are still a lot of burger fans. Even though meat is an important nutrient for our body, eating too much meat can become a serious problem for your health. As the population is increasing, the amount of meat-lovers also increases. And all of them want to get their meat at the lowest prices. So farmers start to use more antibiotics on cows to make them grow faster and to increase their population. The government needs to control such demands and to implement a limit on the price of meat for consumers or on the amount of cows on a single farm. That will solve the problem with the need for meat.