Many observers do not appreciate the range of factors that have been considered in American policies towards China and the relationship between them (Cozic, 1996). However, there has been improvement in understanding of the need to amend the policies towards China by considering them responsible stakeholders. It attempts to eliminate domestic debates in such areas as the role of the Federal government in raising taxes or other issues related to culture, values, or religion.
Foreign policies towards China have been affected by divisive decision and partisanship within the US. In foreign and national security matters, issues concerning China have been observed to be close to partisan skirmishing (Allen, 1995). This has been caused by issues related to values, interests in business, as well as national security interests. It was not easy to deal with these issues in terms of pure and less complicated ‘national interests’ since it is difficult to isolate them from one another. Usually, issues are related to each other resulting in an odd political dynamics, making the debate about China policies complex and difficult to understand for outside observers (Chicago Council on Global Affairs, 2006).
There are also negative reactions on initiatives taken by the US towards China as a result of misunderstanding of the intentions of implementing certain policies by the Congress (Shirk, 2007). Authorities have also been criticized for developing policies that do not promote bilateral trade relationships with China (Kennedy, 2003). Consequently, it is necessary to design an approach that can be used for forming US’s policy towards China. This paper tries to formulated some of the policies that can be used by the US in its relations with China by investigating events that have been observed and establishing whether those experiences can be applied in enhancing the dynamics of work in the present economic conditions.
Strategic Recommendations for Dealing with the Rise of China as a Regional and World Power. China is currently perceived as the fastest growing economy across the globe and a producer of many consumer products that are used by Americans (Pew Global Attitudes Project, 2006). It is the world’s leading producer of steel, which produces more than one-third of the world’s steel products. China is also a leading producer of electronics and household appliances. It is also improving in its technological sphere by developing nuclear reactors and other energy innovations. These economic advantages have made China a leading economic superpower in the world while malpractices are emerging that are not acceptable in the international trade with the US (Chicago Council on Global Affairs, 2006). Hence, certain policies have to be implemented regarding China as a world new superpower.
One of these policies includes the control of cartels. This involves creation of control departments for economic activities that China is involved in (Pew Global Attitudes Project, 2006). For instance, the US can formulate a policy, which ensures some quality standards of products imported from China, which should be inspected before being allowed in the US.
In addition, policies should be amended so that the private sector was strengthened by allowing entrepreneurs to have political voices that assist them by giving their views on the nature of operations that need to be undertaken in bilateral relations with China (The Pew Global Attitudes Project, 2005). A policy which prevents the use of anti-American terms that criticize American’s dominance of the world should also be formulated. This policy will ensure that there is a trade partnership between America and China while preventing any cases of hatred between the two countries (Wall Street Journal, 2005).
Economic Aspects, such as Bilateral Trade and Multilateral Issues. China and the United States of America depend on each other considering the success of their international trade. For instance, China depends on raw material from the US for its industries while the US depends on China for its imports (Kissinger, 2011). However, there have been trade conflicts between these countries. These conflicts have emerged in terms of whether America should allow foreign companies to export their products directly without being prevented by any political barriers. Hence a policy should be formulated, which determines the rights that companies should enjoy while trading products between the US and China, as well as their responsibilities in the bilateral trade relationship (Ma, 1970).
In addition, a policy should be developed, which controls the amount of consumer goods that China can export to America, as well as the amount of these goods that can be exported to China. Bilateral trade between China and America can also be improved by formulation a policy, which improves cooperation between these countries. This can involve formulating a policy that allows convening annual meetings between leaders of the two states (Zheng, 2005). On these meetings, inducements can be proposed, and cooperation between countries can be obtained. Such a step was observed in the case of 1997 when President Jiang Zemin visited Washington to discuss bilateral trade issues and methods of improving relations with President Clinton.
The US can also amend its policies towards China by creating a ‘good neighbor policy’, which is favorable to China (Shirk, 2007). This can involve a policy where high-level visits are conducted in China, gifts and foreign aids are provided to Chinese companies, as well as investing directly in these companies (Fu Mengzi, 2006). This ensures the interests of China are accommodated, and trust is build.
The Taiwan Problem. Policies can be formulated, which ensure the interest of America in Taiwan is achieved by implementing democratic practice in the country. For instance, policies, which prevent the use of external military forces in succession issues in Taiwan, could be helpful. This policy will ensure that China does not allow its military to participate in succession disputes experiencing in Taiwan. It will also ensure that Taiwanese choose their own leaders while foreigners, such as the U.S. and China, do not affect the outcome of elections.
Policies can also be formed that assist in winning the trust of Taiwanese by reaching out to them in friendly approaches that include the use of economic help, as well as political assistance (Goldstein & Conroy, 2007). The Congress needs to convince people that overcoming challenges faced in Taiwan can be possible if Taiwanese are free to solve their political disagreements internally without any external intervention.
How the United States should Promote Human Rights and Democratization in China.
This policy is targeted towards preventing misuse of China’s interests in specific countries neglecting human rights. A policy should ensure China protects human rights in countries where it has an economic interest (Allen, 1995). For instance, the US should formulate a policy where China is made responsible for preventing militia killings in Darfur region in southern Sudan where China has an enormous interest in oil.
A policy should also be formulated, which seeks to include the support of China in the US efforts to protect human rights (Shirk, 2007). For instance, nuclear operations that are conducted by China should be regulated to ensure high safety, which do not inflict any consequences on human rights. In addition, China should be responsible for any life-threatening activities that it conducts in its trade relations with the U.S. These can include sanctions and fines in case this policy is not followed by China. China will also be required to swallow its pride and preserve positive relations with the US and try to minimize domestic disagreements (Kristof & WuDunn, 1994).
Finally, China will be required to cooperate with the US in an effort to support nonproliferation of nuclear weapon. It will also be required to reduce its sale of nuclear weapons to countries, such as Iran that has been destabilized by terrorists. Additional sanctions would be implemented on China if it does not restrain itself from transfering nuclear or missile technologies to countries, such as Iran and Taiwan (Shirk, 2007).
It can be observed that American policies towards China are mainly focused on protecting American interests in international trade. However, the relationship between America and China faces serious challenges in policies put forward by America that are not accepted by Chinese authorities. Rejection of these policies will result in disagreements and conflicts between these countries, and it will not be possible to achieve maximum results from trade ties between these countries.
However, the relationship between China and the US is considered a significant contributor towards a global economy. This is because the US is the leading world economy while China is the fastest growing world economy. Any policies that are formed to control the relations between them will have a direct effect on other countries. China’s economy is considered one that has high potential to surpass any country of the world. However, there are certain business practices that need to be addressed to ensure its relationship with other countries is not deteriorated. These include the use of nuclear energy and disposition of nuclear weapons to terrorist groups. By developing the right policies, which moderate the operations of the country, it will be possible to create a good relationship with other countries in addition to successful international trade relationships. For instance, lack of obedience to certain policies required by the US in bilateral and multilateral trade are likely to results in conflicts that will hamper trade between these countries. Consequently, there is a need to ensure that China observes these trade requirements before participating in bilateral trade relationships (Shirk, 2007).