Due to the evolution in the perception of individuals in the society, it has been a major concern to most departments as to the importance of the 3 D objects in almost every field. As result, this has elicited the development of the Computer Aided Design (CAD) to help keep up with the pace of the advancements in the technology. CAD involves the use of computer technology in object designs whether real or virtual. It goes beyond the usual belief of shapes only and extends to even the design of symbolic information like the materials, dimensions, tolerances and the application specific conventions. It could be used in the design for curves and figures in the two dimensional space or even the solids in the three dimensional objects and figures.
Computer Aided Design (CAD) Implication
CAD is very instrumental in several sectors including sectors like Concept Design, Embodiment Design and Detail Design, Manufacturing, Dimensional Inspection, and Marketing. It is important in areas like shipbuilding, aerospace industries, automotives, industrial and architectural design, and prosthetics among others. It is very instrumental in the production of Animation of special effects in the production of movies, technical manuals and in advertising in the marketing field. CAD has been very important in the research field where several approaches have been very instrumental in the development of computer graphics, computational geometry both hardware and software and the computer differential geometry.
This tool is used by designers and engineers in many ways of dependence in their line of duty. There exist different types of CAD for different applications in the daily to daily lives of several professions. The 3 D solids are very analogous to the real world objects. They however, do not contain the tools that allow the easy motion of the components and thus sets motion limits which in turn identify the interference between different components.
CAD interfaces are very important tools for the access to the data used in the production system. This information is very paramount to the functioning of the system to the line of duty of the designers in a very professional way and manner. It provides information on the available assemblies and materials. The data in this case can be transferred from both directions and therefore, inconsistencies are avoided at all costs.
CAD interfaces are important in number of applications in the field of design. This is because it allows the transfer of information from the external system to the domestic SAP system. It can be important in dealing with issues like Document management, Material master records, Bills of material, Engineering change management, SAP mail and workflow, Plant maintenance, Classification, and Configuration.
In a much specific manner, CAD interfaces serve very important roles especially in the data recognition and control within the organization process of the designers. It enables the designer to increase his or her work load by allowing the individual to work on the designs at a very fast pace. In order to transfer data from an external source or system, CAD can apply the following in a very amicable manner. These include the General Functions, Material Master Records, Document Management, BOMs, Plant Maintenance, and functions for Engineering Change Management, Mail and Workflow Function.
CAD interfaces are very important in creating the link and the difference between AutoCAD and Solid works for 2D and 3D modeling applications. AutoCAD has been influential in the designing and beautifying the whole wide world. This is with the advent of the AutoCAD 2013. This tool has features that will surely amaze the actual designer of the 2D and 3D features that have been used in the real world of events. It will maximize the effect of the tools production nature in a very wonderful manner. These tools are useful in the aggregation and documentation, streamlining and connecting the design and documentation flows of work. This tool is available in Windows and Mac Operating Systems. They allow one to work at the comfort of his or her choice of platform. It provides an easy to use visual communication work flows.
On the other hand, Solid Works is a very instrumental tool that will increase the productivity of both the features of CAD interfaces in the long run. The most recent innovation in this sector is the Solid Works Premium 2012. This gadget automates the programs that are in frequent use. It also allows you to streamline the product in one way or the other. It is easier to validate and define the form on the project. The design can also fit and function very effectively. Thus allows one to share his or her concepts with the team of designers and also the clients (Madsen 2012).
Design Pattern Detection (DPD) is very essential in the practice of reverse Engineering in the gaining of knowledge in the issues pertaining to the designing of a new model or by just improving the details in an already existing design. It does this by improving the quality of the architectural pieces in the same field of design (Narayan 2008). This helps the system in ensuring its maintainability and evolution. This topic has received lots of interest in the recent years and has therefore, helped in the finding of the patterns of design that could give important hints on the comprehension of a system and on what kind of systems problems that have been addressed during the process of developing the system itself. These tools are very important in the re documentation process in the entire system. This is important when the system needs some improvement due to issues like incompleteness, poor or not up to date services.
Several tools are available for the reverse engineering process. These include the fuzzy logic, constraints solving techniques, theorem provers, template, matching methods and classification techniques. Anyway, the results obtained are often very unsatisfactory due to differences in the systems. They are dogged with most false positives in the line of duty as opposed to the aim of the tools which is the correct designs that meet the requirement of the clients.
There are a lot of variations in the improvement of the existing design in the field of design in one way or the other. These variations cause the failure in most pattern approaches in a very wide scale especially in the development of the whole issue. It is mainly a canonical pattern of instances. This will call for the comparison of several different tools in order to help in the evaluation of several tools in the application of the process of CAD development. This is characterized by the MARPLE technique. It takes the following steps in a very vivid way.
i. The detection of sub components or micro structures, which give useful hints on the DP detection, with the aim of mitigating the variant problem
ii. The detection of the largest possible set of DP candidates performed by a module called Joiner, whose results are characterized by very high recall values
iii. The refining of the previous results through data mining techniques, in particular through a step of clustering and a step of supervised classification.
This tool aims at providing the details to the following issues a general model for design pattern representation, the way of comparing results coming from different tools, the possibility to evaluate instances and discuss about their correctness. This adoption by the DPD benchmark improves the cooperation between the researchers and reuse of tools by others instead of developing new ones.
Rapid prototyping technologies are known to construct models from the virtual designs from data of STL nature. This is achieved through the successful layering of materials like metals and plastics. It is an additive process as opposed to the CNC machine that merely removes the excess material. It is best suited for the production of large volumes of models and is very expensive to deal with in small volumes of models. However, there are a number of RP technologies that produce one of a kind object.
As an illustration to this application of technology to the CAD, it has been used in the construction of a 3D bone model that is used in the management of Patients’ CT scan data. This method requires the development of the process in either a few days or hours in order to produce some quality designs. This will depend on the complexity and size of the model. Several prototypes use about two distinct materials for the purpose of the development of the same model. These are the part material and the support. This support will help in the suspension of features in the model.
There exist a number of applications used in the model 3D for the in the RP technologies. These include the stereolithography (SLA), selective laser sintering (SLS), fused deposition modeling, electron beam melting, laminated object manufacturing, and 3D printing. For purposes of this paper, I will only dwell on the first two applications that are the stereolithography and selective laser sintering. The SLA applies the use of a vat of liquid resin plus a UV laser in the construction of the parts that are strong for the process involving the machine. This is the oldest and the most ubiquitous method applied in the structuring of the rapid prototyping. Selective laser sintering uses a laser to sinter or in other words to melt powders that could be plastics, ceramics, glass or metals. This is recast into a mass that represent the object in the 3D format. This method claims better accuracy, stability and strength within a period of time as compared to the SLA.
In the UK, there exist six methods for protecting the Intellectual Property Rights (IPR). These are as follows:
ii. Design Right
iii. Registered Design
iv. Confidential information
vi. Trade Marks
Copyright deals with the automatic rights of an individual or group of persons that applies when the work is at a fixed duration of time. It could be written or recorded in some way. Designs whether registered or confidential will protect the specific appearance of a product or logo. This covers smaller items like a fashion item or very complex designs like the structure of a plane. Patents protect the central operation of a project. For example what makes a wheel to rotate around its axle? It could also protect issues like the chemical formulae of a very popular drink. Finally, trademarks are signs which could either be logos or words that distinguish different goods and services in the market place.